同光体 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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Tónɡ-Guānɡtǐ 同光体

The Tong-Guang School of Poetry

形成于清末同治(1862—1874)、光绪(1875—1908)年间,延续于民国初年的诗歌流派,因同治、光绪年号而得名。主要诗人有陈三立(1852—1937)、沈曾植(1850—1922)、陈衍(1856—1937)、郑孝胥(1860—1938)等。他们推崇宋人诗歌,主张“学人之诗”与“诗人之诗”合一,将言志、缘情、学问、修养相结合,多以议论入诗,重锤炼之功,风格雄健瘦硬,标举所谓“荒寒之路”。因地域和风格的不同,同光体又有闽派、浙派、江西派之分。

The Tong-Guang School of poetry, which first emerged during the reigns of the Tongzhi (1862-1874) and Guangxu (1875-1908) emperors of late Qing, continued to flourish in the early years of the Republic of China early in the 20th century. It was thus named by combining the initial characters of the two emperors’ reign titles. Chen Sanli (1852-1937), Shen Zengzhi (1850-1922), Chen Yan (1856-1937) and Zheng Xiaoxu (1860-1938) were representative figures of this school. They valued Song ci poetry, a kind of lyric classical Chinese poetry using a poetic meter based upon certain patterns of fixed-rhythm formal types. Their aim was to blend “the poetry of a poet” with “the poetry of a scholar,” merging a poet’s aspirations, feelings, academic learning and moral accomplishment into an integral whole. They incorporated commentaries into their poems and carefully weighed their words. Stylistically, they pursued a vigorous brevity and straightforwardness, trying to blaze “a way through desolate wilderness.” Due to regional and stylistic differences, this school of poetic creation is further divided into the Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangxi branches.

引例 Citations:

◎同光体者,苏戡与余戏称同光以来诗人不墨守盛唐者。(陈衍《沈乙盫诗序》)

(所谓同光体,是郑孝胥和我用来戏称同治、光绪以来写诗不遵守盛唐风格的诗人的用语。)

“The Tong-Guang School of poetry” is a jocular term Zheng Xiaoxu and I invented for those since the Tongzhi and Guangxu times who, when writing poems, did not comply with the rules of poetry prevalent in the most prosperous period of the Tang Dynasty. (Chen Yan: A Preface to Collected Poems of Shen Zengzhi)

◎往余在京华,郑君过我邸。告言子沈子,诗亦同光体。杂然见赠答,色味若粢醍(tǐ)。(陈衍《冬述四首视子培》其三)

(过去我在京城的时候,郑孝胥来到我的住处。他告诉我沈子写的诗,与我同为同光体。我们互相赠答的多篇作品,色泽气味至今仍似陈年老酒。)

When I was in the capital, Zheng Xiaoxu once came to see me. He told me that Shen Zengzhi’s poems, like mine, belonged to the Tong-Guang School of poetry. The many works we wrote in salute to each other were like mellow wine, whose color and flavor would never diminish over time. (Chen Yan: Four Pieces Written During Winter for Presentation to Shen Zengzhi)

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