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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy沙曼翁 行书:杜甫《梦李白二首》(其二)

沙曼翁 行书:杜甫《梦李白二首》(其二)

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沙曼翁 行书:杜甫《梦李白二首》(其二)


【释文】浮云终日行,游子久不至。三夜频梦君,情亲见君意。告归常局促,苦道来不易。江湖多风波,舟楫恐失坠。出门搔白首,若负平生志。冠盖满京华,斯人独憔悴。孰云网恢恢,将老身反累。千秋万岁名,寂寞身后事。

【款识】杜子美怀李白诗之二,寐翁书于茶新墨旧斋。

【注释】楫:船浆、船。斯人:指李白。

【简析】

  《梦李白二首》都紧扣一个“梦”字,恍恍惚惚,如在梦中,情切意真,缠绵悱恻。第二首所写的情态举动如在醒时,感慨悲叹,也更加深沉感人。

  这首诗头两句自成一段。以“浮云”比喻“游子”,并作为全篇开头,这是古代诗歌常用的“兴”的手法。浮云飘忽不定,历来诗词多以它喻写游子,如《古诗十九首》中有“浮云蔽白日,游子不顾返”,李白《送友人》诗中也有“浮云游子意”。杜甫化用其意,说游子象浮云一样整日飘行不止,但每天总能见到浮云,而游子却长久不得回来,浮云游子的比喻在这里进一步得到了深化。

  第二段八句,写梦。与前一首比较,前一首说“故人入我梦”,从梦中入笔;这首说“三夜频梦君”,综合多次梦境。前首说“常恻恻”,表现诗人思友之切;这首说“频梦君”,写李白访友之勤。前一首说“ 长相忆”,是杜甫想念李白;这一首说“见君意”, 是李白了解杜甫。“告归”以下四句描摹梦中李白的情态、言语,“三夜频梦”,但告归时仍然“常局促”,可见两位挚友恨相见时短的依恋之情。“江湖”两句,由“告归”写到归程的险恶。不过,前一首中的“水深”两句是诗人的嘱托,这一首中的“江湖”两句是李白的自叙。“出门”两句写李白辞别的情态,“搔白首”正是“局促”的具体表现,“若负平生志”则是从这个动作中看出来的。“平生志”三字,又引出了下面一段。

  最后六句为第三段,抒发诗人梦醒后的感慨。

  “冠盖”两句以对比手法,为李白鸣不平。“满京华”的究竟有几个是贤能者,而一代诗仙却“独憔悴”!

  “满”、“独”两字包含了诗人对“冠盖”的鄙弃和对李白的同情。“孰云”两句对“天网”提出怀疑,表示愤慨,并指斥天地不公,对友人的坎坷遭遇悲愤不已,这种感情在这里得到有力的表露。最后两句以“身后事”的“寂寞”来抒发对李白生前的关切和死后的忧虑。杜甫深知李白,他知道千年万载之后,李白的名声将是不朽的,但生前却遭冤狱而不能实现平生抱负。

  仇兆鳌在《杜诗详注》中评论此诗说:“千古交情,惟此为至。然非公至性,不能有此至情,非公至文,亦不能写此至性。”何其芳在《诗歌欣赏》中也认为,在杜诗中,赠李白和谈到李白的诗有十多首,“其中最动人的是《梦李白二首》”。他指出这两首诗“写得十分沉痛,写出了他和李白之间的友谊的深厚,也表现了他对于封建社会的不平的愤懑。”这些评价都是十分中肯的。

【Simple Translation】

  The two poems of “Dreaming of Li Bai” are both tightly focused on the word “dream”, as if they were in a dream, and the emotions are sincere and lingering. The second poem is about the emotions and actions of the poet when he is awake, and it is even more profound and touching.

  The first two lines of this poem form a paragraph of their own. This is a common technique of “Xing” used in ancient poetry, which uses “floating clouds” as a metaphor for “wanderers” and begins the whole poem. For example, in the poem “Nineteen Old Poems” there is “Floating clouds cover the white sun, the wanderer does not care to return”, and in Li Bai’s poem “Sending a Friend” there is also “Floating clouds are the wanderer’s intention”. Du Fu uses his meaning to say that the wanderer is like a floating cloud, but he can always see the floating cloud every day, but the wanderer cannot return for a long time, and the metaphor of the floating cloud wanderer is further deepened here.

  The second eight lines are about dreams. In the first stanza, it says, “The old man entered my dream”, starting from a dream; in this stanza, it says, “I dreamed of you three nights often”, combining several dreams. In the first poem, the poet’s “constant sympathy” shows how much the poet misses his friend; in this poem, “frequent dreams of you” shows how often Li Bai visits his friend. In the first poem, the poet says, “We have long memories of each other,” because Du Fu misses Li Bai; in this poem, he says, “I want to see you,” because Li Bai understands Du Fu. “The following four lines describe Li Bai’s mood and words in his dream, “I dreamed frequently for three nights”, but when he said goodbye, he was still “often in a hurry”, which shows the attachment of the two dear friends who hated the short time they saw each other. The two lines of “Jianghu” are about the dangerous journey back from “to return”. However, the two lines of “deep water” in the previous poem are the poet’s instructions, while the two lines of “Jianghu” in this one are Li Bai’s self-reporting. “The two lines of “going out” describe Li Bai’s farewell mood, and “scratching his white head” is a concrete expression of his “shortness of breath”. “If I were to fail to live up to my life’s ambition” is seen from this action. The three words “the spirit of life” lead to the following paragraph.

  The last six lines are the third paragraph, expressing the poet’s feelings after waking up from his dream.

  The two lines of “crowned with a crown” use contrast to express the injustice for Li Bai. How many of those who are “full of the capital” are virtuous and capable, while the poet of the generation is “alone and haggard”!

  The words “full” and “alone” contain the poet’s contempt for the “crowned” and his sympathy for Li Bai. The two lines “who is the cloud” expresses his doubts and indignation about the “heavenly net” and denounces the injustice of heaven and earth, and his grief and indignation about his friend’s difficult experience. The last two lines express his concern for Li Bai in his life and his worries after his death with the “loneliness” of the “afterlife”. Du Fu knew Li Bai well, and he knew that his reputation would be immortal a thousand years later, but in his lifetime he was unjustly imprisoned and could not realize his lifelong ambition.

  Qiu Zhaoyao commented on this poem in his “Detailed Notes on Du Poems”, saying, “This is the only one of the thousand ancient friendships. However, if it is not the best, it cannot be the best, and if it is not the best, it cannot be the best.” He Qifang also argues in his Poetry Appreciation that among Du’s poems, there are more than ten poems gifting Li Bai and talking about him, “the most moving of which is ‘Two Poems of Dreaming Li Bai’. He points out that these two poems “are written in a very sorrowful manner, expressing the depth of friendship between him and Li Bai, and also his indignation at the injustice of feudal society.” These comments are all very pertinent.

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