Jin Opera / Scripts Used by Courtesans
In a broad sense, the term means a style of traditional opera popular in the Jin Dynasty. In a narrow sense, it refers to the scores and librettos used in this type of drama, which was performed mainly in hangyuan (行院), or brothels, hence the name. This genre was very popular in the early Jin Dynasty but no separate, complete works have come down to us today. The format is as follows: short acts, simple plots, humorous language and comic gestures. The main performer fujing (副净) provides the humor while the supporting performer fumo (副末) provides comic backup. The form inherited a great deal from the Tang Dynasty two-person comic banter of canjunxi (参军戏) , and Song Dynasty zaju comedy. The brothel scores had a great influence on the development of later Yuan zaju or opera.
In the Jin Dynasty, there were scores used by courtesans, zaju and zhugongdiao, a kind of song-speech drama with mixed modes of tunes. In fact the scores and zaju were the same thing. They were not divided into two separate genres until the Yuan Dynasty. (Tao Zongyi : Stories by Master Nancun)