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China, based on Chinese civilization and Chinese culture, is one of the countries with the longest history in the world. The Chinese people of all ethnic groups have jointly created a splendid culture and a glorious revolutionary tradition.

China is a multi-ethnic country with the Han nationality as the main ethnic group. Chinese and Chinese characters are commonly used in China. The Han nationality and ethnic minorities are collectively referred to as the “Chinese nation” and call themselves “descendants of the Chinese people” and “descendants of the dragon”.

China is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world. Around 5800 years ago, the Yellow River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Xiliao River showed signs of the origin of civilization; around 5300 years ago, all regions of China entered the stage of civilization; around 3800 years ago, the Central Plains formed a more mature form of civilization, and radiated cultural influence to the four sides; After many times of ethnic blending and dynasty changes, the unified situation of a multi-ethnic country was formed.


In the early 20th century, after the revolution of 1911, the feudal monarchy was abolished and the bourgeois democratic republic was founded. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the socialist system of people’s democratic dictatorship was established in Chinese mainland.

China has a vast territory and many nationalities. In the pre Qin period, the Huaxia nationality flourished in the Central Plains. In the Han Dynasty, the Han nationality was formally formed through cultural blending, which laid the foundation for the main nationality of China. After that, it gradually formed a unified multi-ethnic country by blending with the surrounding ethnic groups, and the population also continued to rise. The population of China in Song Dynasty exceeded 100 million, that in Qing Dynasty exceeded 400 million, and that in 2005 exceeded 1.3 billion.

Chinese culture has a long history, is broad and profound, and is colorful. It is the cultural sovereign country in the East Asian cultural circle, and occupies an important position in the world cultural system. Due to the differences in geographical location and natural conditions, the humanities and economy also have their own characteristics. Traditional cultural and artistic formsc forms include poetry, opera, calligraphy, traditional Chinese painting, etc., while Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, Qingming Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival are important traditional festivals in China.

In prehistoric times, Youchao, Suiren, Fuxi, Shennong (Yandi) and Huangdi (Xuanyuan) were regarded as the ancestors of Chinese culture. In 2070 BC, Xia Dynasty appeared; in Shang Dynasty, oracle bone inscriptions, the earliest mature writing in China, appeared; in Western Zhou Dynasty, society developed further, productivity increased in spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, and a hundred schools of thought contend. In 221 B.C., Qin Shihuang established the first centralized feudal state in Chinese history Qin Dynasty; the western and Eastern Han Dynasties further consolidated and developed the situation of great unification, and the Chinese characters were basically shaped. During the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty, the southern and Northern Dynasties, China entered a situation of separatist regime.


During the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties, economic prosperity, scientific and Technological Development and cultural influence were widespread. During the Wuzhou period, the international status reached its peak because of the construction of “the great Zhou Wanguo praises the virtue of Tianshu”. In the period of Liao, song, Xia, Jin and Yuan Dynasties, multi-cultural integration, economy, science and technology developed to a new height. In the Ming Dynasty, the economy developed, and “capitalist sprouts” appeared in Jiangnan area at the end of the Ming Dynasty;

In the middle of the 19th century, after the Opium War in the Qing Dynasty, China began to become a semi colonial and semi feudal society. In 1911, the revolution of 1911 broke out, overthrew the monarchy and established the Republic of China. After Yuan Shikai’s death, China entered a period of warlord separatist chaos. After the northern expedition, the KMT unified China in name. In 1931, Japan instigated the September 18th Incident. In 1937, it began to invade China in an all-round way. In 1945, it won the Anti Japanese war.

After the liberation war, the Communist Party of China established the people’s Republic of China in 1949.

The founding ceremony of new China

The people’s Republic of China, or “China” for short, was founded on October 1, 1949. It is located in the east of Asia and the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. It is a socialist country under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. It takes the five-star red flag as the national flag and the march of the volunteers as the national anthem. The national emblem contains the national flag, Tiananmen Square, cogwheel and wheat and rice ears. The common language is Putonghua and Putonghua Standardized Chinese characters, the capital of Beijing, is a unified multi-ethnic country composed of 56 ethnic groups with the Han nationality as the main body.

China’s land area is about 9.6 million square kilometers, the coastline of the eastern and southern continents is more than 18000 kilometers, and the water area of the inland and border seas is about 4.7 million square kilometers. There are more than 7600 islands in the sea area, of which Taiwan island is the largest, with an area of 35798 square kilometers. China borders 14 countries and 8 countries on the sea. The provincial administrative divisions are 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities directly under the central government and 2 special administrative regions.

China territory Map

China has a splendid culture and glorious revolutionary tradition, and the number of world heritages is leading in the world. After the founding of new China in 1949, it entered the period of socialist revolution and construction. In 1956, it realized the transition to socialism. Since then, the socialist construction has developed tortuously in exploration. After the “Cultural Revolution”, we carried out reform and opening up and concentrated on socialist modernization along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics. After long-term efforts, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era.

China is a developing country with the largest population in the world, the third largest land area in the world, and the second largest economy in the world. It continues to be the largest contributor to world economic growth, with the total economic volume exceeding 99 trillion yuan in 2019. China adheres to an independent foreign policy of peace. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and an important member of many international organizations, China is regarded as one of the potential superpowers.

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