Wang Wei, On Mission to the Frontier – 王维《使至塞上》

0
193
Listen to this article

使至塞上[1]

王维

单车[2]欲问边,

属国[3]过居延[4]

征蓬[5]出汉塞,

归雁入胡天。

大漠孤烟直,

长河落日圆。

萧关[6]逢候骑[7]

都护[8]在燕然[9]

注释:

[1] 塞上:边塞之上。

[2] 单车:出使的车仗简单,随从不多。

[3] 属国:汉代称那些仍旧保留原有国号的附属国为属国。另一说法,属国是官名“典属国”的简称,其职事是与少数民族交往,苏武归国后任此职。唐代则以其代指使臣,本诗指作者本人。当时作者以监察御史的身份出塞慰问得胜将士。

[4] 居延:汉属居延国,汉末设县,属张掖郡,在今甘肃省古额济纳旗东南。《后汉书·郡国志》:“凉州有张掖居延属国。”

[5] 征蓬:蓬,草名,茎高尺余,叶如柳叶,开小白花,秋枯根拔,风卷而飞,因此又叫飞蓬。蓬草根浅,随风飘行,所以古人以征蓬、飘蓬喻飘泊的旅人。

[6] 萧关:一名古陇关,汉朝与匈奴对抗时的要塞。汉文帝十四年,匈奴杀北地都尉入萧关。其地在今宁夏回族自治区固原县东南。

[7] 候骑:骑马的侦察兵。

[8] 都护:唐代边疆设置都护府,都护府的长官为都护,这里指崔希逸。

[9] 燕然:山名,即杭爱山,蒙古人民共和国赛音诺颜部境内的杭爱山。汉车骑将军窦宪击破匈奴北单于,追击至燕然山,登山刻石记功而还,后世用为克敌制胜的典故。这里借用之。

On Mission to the Frontier

Wang Wei

A single carriage goes to the frontier;

An envoy crosses northwest mountains high.

Like tumbleweed I leave the fortress drear;

As wild geese I come under Tartarian sky.

In boundless desert lonely smokes rise straight;

Over endless river the sun sinks round.

I meet a cavalier at the camp gate;

In northern fort the general will be found.

In 737 the poet was sent as an envoy to the frontier and he wrote this poem on his way, in which he compares himself to the rootless tumbleweed and the wild goose longing for home. This poem is well-known for the description of “straight” smoke and “round” sun against the background of a “boundless” desert and an “endless” river.

赏析

这是诗人奉命赴边疆慰问将士途中所作的一首边塞诗,记述出使塞上的旅程以及旅程中所见的塞外风光。首联两句交待此行目的和到达地点,诗缘何而作;颔联两句包含多重意蕴,借蓬草自况,写飘零之感;颈联两句描绘了边陲大漠中壮阔雄奇的景象,境界阔大,气象雄浑;尾联两句写到了边塞,却没有遇到将官,侦察兵告诉使臣:首将正在燕然前线。此诗既反映了边塞生活,同时也表达了诗人由于被排挤而产生的孤独、寂寞、悲伤之情以及在大漠的雄浑景色中情感得到熏陶、净化、升华后产生的慷慨悲壮之情,显露出一种豁达情怀。

“单车欲问边”,轻车前往,向哪里去呢——“属国过居延”,居延在今甘肃张掖市西北,远在西北边塞。

“征蓬出汉塞,归雁入胡天”,诗人以“蓬”、“雁”自比,说自己像随风而去的蓬草一样出临“汉塞”,像振翮北飞的“归雁”一样进入“胡天”。古诗中多用飞蓬比喻漂流在外的游子,这里却是比喻一个负有朝廷使命的大臣,正是暗写诗人内心的激愤抑郁和孤寂落寞。与首句的“单车”相呼应。万里行程只用了十个字轻轻带过。

然后抓住沙漠中的典型景物进行刻画:“大漠孤烟直,长河落日圆”。

最后两句写到达边塞:“萧关逢候骑,都护在燕然”。到了边塞,却没有遇到将官,侦察兵告诉使臣:首将正在燕然前线。

诗人把笔墨重点用在了他最擅长的方面——写景。作者出使,恰在春天。途中见数行归雁北翔,诗人即景设喻,用归雁自比,既叙事,又写景,一笔两到,贴切自然。尤其是“大漠孤烟直,长河落日圆”一联,写进入边塞后所看到的塞外奇特壮丽的风光,画面开阔,意境雄浑,近人王国维称之为“千古壮观”的名句。边疆沙漠,浩瀚无边,所以用了“大漠“的“大”字。边塞荒凉,没有什么奇观异景,烽火台燃起的那一股浓烟就显得格外醒目,因此称作“孤烟”。一个“孤”字写出了景物的单调,紧接一个“直”字,却又表现了它的劲拔、坚毅之美。沙漠上没有山峦林木,那横贯其间的河流,就非用一个“长”字不能表达诗人的感觉。落日,本来容易给人以感伤的印象,这里用一“圆”字,却给人以亲切温暖而又苍茫的感觉。一个“圆”字,一个“直”字,不仅准确地描绘了沙漠的景象,而且表现了作者的深切的感受。诗人把自己的孤寂情绪巧妙地溶化在广阔的自然景象的描绘中。《红楼梦》第四十八回香菱学诗里说的那段话可算道出了这两句诗高超的艺术境界。▲

Appreciation

This is a poem written on the way to the frontier to console the soldiers, describing the journey to the frontier and the scenery outside the frontier seen during the journey. The first two lines describe the purpose of the trip and the place of arrival, and the reason for the poem; the two lines of the first line contain multiple meanings, using the grass to describe himself and his feelings of drifting; the two lines of the third line depict the magnificent and majestic scenery in the frontier desert, with a broad and majestic atmosphere; the two lines of the last line write that when the poet arrives at the frontier, he does not meet the general, and the scout tells the ambassador that the first general is at the front line of Yanran. This poem not only reflects the life at the border, but also expresses the poet’s loneliness, isolation and sorrow due to exclusion, as well as his generous and sad feelings after his emotions are inculcated, purified and sublimated in the majestic scenery of the desert, revealing an open-mindedness.

“I want to ask the border with a single car”, light car to go, where to go – “belong to the country over Juyan”, Juyan in the present day northwest of Zhangye City, Gansu, far away in the northwest border.

“The poet compares himself to the “puffs” and “geese”, saying that he is like the puffs of grass that go with the wind, going out of the “Hansei The poet compares himself with the “canopy” and “geese”, saying that he is like the canopy that goes with the wind, and like the “returning geese” that fly north, he enters the “Hu sky”. In ancient poems, the metaphor of a wanderer is often used, but here it is a metaphor of a minister who has a mission to the court, which is an allusion to the poet’s inner anger, depression and loneliness. The poem echoes the first line’s “bicycle”. The journey of ten thousand miles is lightly mentioned in only ten words.

Then the typical scenery in the desert is captured and portrayed: “The lonely smoke of the desert is straight, the long river is full of sunset.

The last two lines are about the arrival at the border: “Xiao Guan meets the waiting horsemen, and the guardian is in Yan Ran”. When they arrived at the border, they did not meet any general, but the scouts told the ambassador that the first general was at the front line of Yanran.

The poet focuses his writing on what he is best at – writing scenery. The author went on an embassy, just in spring. On the way, the poet sees several lines of returning geese flying north. In particular, the line “The lonely smoke of the desert is straight, and the sunset of the Yangtze River is full” is about the strange and magnificent scenery outside the frontier seen by the poet after entering the frontier, with an open picture and a majestic mood. The border desert is so vast that the word “great” is used for “desert”. The border desert is so desolate that there are no wonders, and the smoke from the beacon stands out, so it is called “lonely smoke”. The word “lonely” brings out the monotony of the scenery, followed by the word “straight”, but it shows its strong and resolute beauty. There are no mountains and trees on the desert, and the river that crosses it cannot express the poet’s feeling without the word “long”. The sunset, which would have easily given people a sentimental impression, is here with the word “round”, but it gives people an intimate and warm, yet pale feeling. The word “round” and the word “straight” not only accurately depict the scene of the desert, but also express the author’s deep feelings. The poet cleverly dissolves his loneliness in the depiction of the vast natural scenery. The first of these is the “A Dream of the Red Chamber”. ▲

 

Rate this post

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here