Gao Shi Poem: Song of the Northern Frontier – 高適《燕歌行》

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Gao Shi – 高适

燕歌行

高適

开元二十六年,客有从御史大夫张公[1]出塞而还者,作燕歌行[2]以示适,感征戍之事,因而和焉。

汉家烟尘在东北[3]

汉将辞家破残贼。

男儿本自重横行[4]

天子非常赐颜色[5]

摐金伐鼓下榆关[6]

旌旆逶迤[7]碣石间。

校尉羽书飞瀚海[8]

单于猎火照狼山[9]

山川萧条极边土[10]

胡骑凭陵[11]杂风雨。

战士军前半死生[12]

美人帐下[13]犹歌舞。

大漠穷秋塞草腓[14]

孤城落日斗兵稀。

身当恩遇恒轻敌,

力尽关山未解围。

铁衣[15]远戍辛勤久,

玉箸[16]应啼别离后。

少妇城南欲断肠,

征人蓟北[17]空回首。

边庭飘飖那可度[18]

绝域[19]苍茫更何有。

杀气三时作阵云[20]

寒声一夜传刁斗[21]

相看白刃血纷纷,

死节从来岂顾勋[22]

君不见沙场征战苦,

至今犹忆李将军[23]

注释:

[1] 张公:指河北节度副使张守珪。开元二十三年,张因为与契丹作战立功拜为辅国大将军兼御史大夫。二十六年,其部将假借张之命,与叛余党战先胜后败。张不据实上报,反而贿赂去调查情况的牛仙童。事败,张被贬。

[2] 燕歌行:属乐府《相和歌·平调曲》。

[3] “汉家”句:汉家,汉朝,代指唐朝。烟尘,烽烟战尘,代指敌人入侵。

[4] 横行:纵横驰骋,横行无阻。

[5] 赐颜色:给面子,赐予荣耀。

[6] “摐金”句:摐(chuānɡ),撞击。金,军中乐器。伐鼓,击鼓。下,往,直奔。榆关,即山海关。

[7] 逶迤:穿行。

[8] “校尉”句:校尉,武官名,仅次于将军。羽书,插有鸟羽毛的紧急军函。瀚海,大漠。

[9] 狼山:在今内蒙古境内。

[10] 极边土:临边境的尽头。

[11] 凭陵:侵犯。

[12] 半死生:形容伤亡惨重。

[13] 帐下:指将帅的营帐。

[14] 腓(féi):衰败;枯萎。

[15] 铁衣:指远征战士。

[16] 玉箸(zhù):形容少妇的眼泪。

[17] 蓟北:唐蓟州治所在渔阳,今天津蓟县,这里泛指东北边地。

[18] “边庭”句:边庭,边疆。飘飖(yáo),此形容边地局势紧张。度,越过。

[19] 绝域:极僻远的地方。

[20] “三时”句:三时,指晨、午、晚,即一整天。阵云,战云。

[21] 刁斗:军中的一种报更工具,铜器。

[22] “死节”句:死节,此指为保卫国家而死。顾勋,顾及个人功勋。

[23] 李将军:汉代李广,他作战勇敢,身先士卒,爱惜士兵。

Song of the Northern Frontier

Gao Shi

A cloud of smoke and dust spreads over northeast frontier;

To fight the remnant foe our generals leave the rear.

Brave men should go no manes where beneath the sky;

The emperor bestows on them his favor high.

To the beat of drums and gongs through Elm Pass they go;

Round Mount Stone Tablet flags serpentine row on row,

But urgent orders speed over the Sea of Sand:

Mount Wolf aflame with fires set by the Tartar band.

Both hills and streams axe desolate on border plain;

The Tartar horsemen flurry like the wind and rain.

Half of our warriors lie killed on the battleground;

While pretty girls in camp still sing and dance their round.

Grass withers in the desert as autumn is late;

At sunset few men guard the lonely city gate.

Imperial favor makes them hold the foemen light;

Their town is under siege, though they’ve fought with their might.

In coats of mail they’ve served so long on the frontiers;

Since they let home their wives have shed streams of impearled tears.

In southern towns the women weep with broken heart;

In vain their men look southward, still they’re far apart.

The northern front at stake, how can they go away?

On border vast and desolate, how can they stay?

All day a cloud of slaughter mounts now and again;

All night the boom of gongs is heard to chill the plain.

Each sees the other’s sword bloodstained in the hard strife.

Will they care for reward when they give up their life?

Do you not know the bitterness of fighting with the foe?

Can they forget General Li sharing their weal and woe?

The poet criticizes the proud generals defeated for they made light of the enemy, and glorifies General Li (lst century BC) who shared weal and woe with his soldiers.

Gao Shi – 高适

《燕歌行》是唐代诗人高适的诗作。此诗概括一般的边塞战争,主要是揭露主将骄逸轻敌,不恤士卒,致使战事失利。全篇大致可分四段。首段八句写出师。其中前四句说战尘起于东北,将军奉命征讨,天子特赐光彩,已见得宠而骄,为后文轻敌伏笔;后四句接写出征阵容,旌旗如云,鼓角齐鸣,一路上浩浩荡荡,大模大样开赴战地,为失利时狼狈情景作反衬。第二段八句写战斗经过。其中前四句写战初敌人来势凶猛,唐军伤亡惨重;后四句说至晚已兵少力竭,不得解围。第三段八句写征人,思妇两地相望,重会无期。末段四句,前两句写战士在生还无望的处境下,已决心以身殉国;后两句诗人感慨,对战士的悲惨命运深寄同情。全诗气势畅达,笔力矫健,气氛悲壮淋漓,主旨深刻含蓄。

“Song of the Northern Frontier” is a poem written by Gao Shi, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. This poem summarizes the general warfare at the frontier, mainly to expose the arrogance and carelessness of the general and his lack of compassion for the soldiers, which led to the defeat of the battle. The whole poem can be roughly divided into four sections. The first eight lines are about the departure of the army. The first four lines say that the war dust started in the northeast, the general was ordered to conquer, the emperor gave special luster, already see the favor and arrogance, for the later text light enemy ambush; the second four lines then write the marching formation, flags like clouds, drums and horns sounded, all the way to the battlefield in a grand manner, for the defeat of the wretched scene as a counterpoint. The second eight lines describe the battle. The first four lines are about the fierce enemy at the beginning of the battle and the heavy casualties of the Tang army; the second four lines are about the exhaustion of the troops at the end of the night and the inability to break the siege. In the third eight lines, it is written that the conqueror and his wife are looking at each other in two places, and there is no date for their reunion. In the last four lines, the first two lines are about the warriors’ determination to die for their country when there is no hope of survival; in the last two lines, the poet expresses his sympathy for the tragic fate of the warriors. The whole poem is full of vigorous and powerful writing, with a sad and dripping atmosphere and a profound and implicit theme.

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