格 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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gé 格

Examine / Study

对人、事、物的考量与推究。是儒家提出的获得正确认识、培养道德良知的途径,具有方法论的意义。“格”亦有规范、准则的意思。用于人物品评,则指人的道德水平和思想境界,即人格。用于文艺批评,主要有三重含义:其一,指诗文写作的基本要求和方法;其二,指作品的品位、品格与境界;其三,指作品的体制、组织结构,是内容特色和形式特征相统一而呈现出的整体格局,仍不离衡量作品水准这一核心意义。

This term means to study or examine things, people or any phenomenon. It is an approach developed by Confucian scholars to help people obtain accurate assessments of things around them and to cultivate morals and ethics, as a kind of methodology. Sometimes the term is used as a noun to refer to a standard or criterion. When the term is used to assess a person’s qualifications, it refers to his moral quality which is to say, a person’s personality or moral integrity, as well as attainments in learning. In literary criticism, it has three connotations: first of all, it refers to the basic requirements and methods for poem or prose writing; second, it refers to the taste, style, and literary attainment; third, it is about the overall structure of a literary work or how the form and content are integrated. All in all, the term refers to the criteria applied in judging a literary work.

引例 Citations:

◎致知在格物,物格而后知至。(《礼记·大学》)

(获得真知的途径在于推究事实与现象,穷尽事物方方面面的道理,而后才得到真知。)

To study and analyze facts and phenomena is the right approach to obtain knowledge; the truth can only be obtained after facts and phenomena are thoroughly examined and analyzed. (The Book of Rites)

◎唐之晚年,诗人无复李、杜豪放之格,然亦务以精意相高。(欧阳修《六一诗话》)

(到了晚唐,诗人们难以再现李杜诗歌那样奔放宏大的境界,但也一定要以构思精巧而一争高下。)

In the late Tang Dynasty, poets no longer possessed the bold, heroic qualities of their predecessors Li Bai and Du Fu. Nonetheless they still competed with each other with regard to the depth of thought and literary refinement. (Ouyang Xiu: Ouyang Xiu’s Criticism of Poetry)

◎诗之要,有曰格,曰意、曰趣而已。格以辨其体,意以达其情,趣以臻其妙也。(高启《独庵集序》)

(作诗的关键在于“格”(格局)、“意”(意蕴)和“趣”(趣味)。“格”可以判断其风格体式是否雅正,“意”则是察看其是否表达了真情实感,而“趣”则是衡量其是否达到精妙的境界。)

Structure, content, and appeal are the essentials of poetry. Its structure will reflect the poetic form; its content will convey emotion; and its appeal will determine whether it has achieved a high level of artistry. (Gao Qi: Preface to Collected Works of Du’an)

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