水墨画 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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shuǐmòhuà 水墨画

Ink Wash Painting

指中国画中纯用水墨、不用色彩的一种绘画形式。也称国画、中国画。以水、墨、毛笔和宣纸作为主要材料,通过调配清水的多少,引为浓墨、淡墨、干墨、湿墨、焦墨等,画出浓淡层次不同的作品。一般的水墨画,只有水与墨,黑色与白色。进阶的水墨画,也有工笔花鸟画,色彩艳丽,又称彩墨画。中国水墨画讲究远处抽象、近处写实,渲染色彩、营构意境,崇尚“气韵生动”。

This refers to a style of painting in which ink shades are manipulated through dilution, and color use is minimal. It is also known as traditional Chinese or typically Chinese painting. The materials used include ink and water, a painting brush, and rice paper. Through adjusting the proportion of water to ink, the final image varies between light and dark, wet and dry, and thick and thin ink, thus producing varying degrees of color intensity. An ink wash painting normally consists of only ink and water, or of black and white. A more refined ink wash painting, on the other hand, may also feature an elaborate style of painting with flowers and birds in splendid hues, also known as “colored ink wash painting.” On the whole, Chinese ink wash painting is impressionistic when depicting distant objects, but realistic about nearby ones. Through the skillful manipulation of color contrasts and the production of artistic ambience, the painter brings forth the value of a painting’s “spiritual liveliness.”

引例 Citations:

◎夫画道之中,水墨最为上。肇自然之性,成造化之功。或咫尺之图,写千里之景。东西南北,宛尔目前;春夏秋冬,生于笔下。(旧题王维《画学秘诀》)

(在绘画道法之中,水墨画法是最上层的一种。它发端于水墨的自然质性,却成就了天地造化的神奇。数尺长的画幅,能绘制出长达几千里的景色。它将天下四方的景色,都呈现在观者眼前;四季的物象,都通过画笔表现出来。)

Ink wash is the cream of all painting techniques. Making use of the natural properties of ink and water, it creates a miraculous view of heaven and earth. About a dozen inches of a painting would suffice to demonstrate a several-thousand-li-long landscape. It captures the scenic beauty of all quarters of the world, showing seasonal changes through the execution of a painting brush. (A Preface to Wang Wei’s Mysteries of Painting)

◎余曾见破墨山水,笔迹劲爽。(张彦远《历代名画记》卷十)

(我曾见王维用破墨之法创作的山水画,它的线条很是劲健、爽朗。)

I saw some landscape paintings produced by Wang Wei rendered with the use of an “alternating technique,” namely alternating light ink with thick ink or vice versa, or alternating wet ink with dry ink. They struck me as vigorous and bold.(Zhang Yanyuan: Notes on Past Famous Paintings)

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