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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy王震 行书:李白《长门怨二首》(其二)

王震 行书:李白《长门怨二首》(其二)

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王震 行书:李白《长门怨二首》(其二)


【释文】桂殿长愁不记春,黄金四屋起秋尘。夜悬明镜青天上,独照长门宫里人。

【款识】里人鹤鸣先生属书。丁丑仲夏,白龙山人。

【简析】

  《长门怨》是一个古乐府诗题。据《乐府解题》记述:“《长门怨》者,为陈皇后作也。后退居长门宫,愁闷悲思。……相如为作《长门赋》。……后人因其《赋》而为《长门怨》。”陈皇后,小名阿娇,是汉武帝皇后。武帝小时曾说:“若得阿娇作妇,当作金屋贮之。”李白的这两首诗是借这一旧题来泛写宫人的愁怨。两首诗表达的是同一主题,分别来看,落想布局,各不相同,合起来看,又有珠联璧合之妙。

  第二首诗,着重言情。通篇是以我观物,缘情写景,使景物都染上极其浓厚的感情色彩。上首到结尾处才写到“愁”,这首一开头就揭出“愁”字,说明下面所写的一切都是愁人眼中所见、心中所感。

  诗的首句“桂殿长愁不记春”,不仅揭出“愁”字,而且这个愁是“长愁”,也就是说,诗中人并非因当前秋夜的凄凉景色才引起愁思,乃是长年都在愁怨之中,即令春临大地,万象更新,也丝毫不能减轻这种愁怨;而由于愁怨难遣,她是感受不到春天的,甚至在她的记忆中已经没有春天了。诗的第二句“黄金四屋起秋尘”,与前首第二句遥相绾合。因为“金屋无人”,所以“黄金四屋”生尘;因是“萤火流”的季节,所以是“起秋尘”。下面三、四两句“夜悬明镜青天上,独照长门宫里人”,又与前首三、四两句遥相呼应。前首写月光欲到长门,是将到未到;这里则写明月高悬中天,已经照到长门,并让读者最后在月光下看到了“长门宫里人”。

  这位“长门宫里人”对季节、对环境、对月光的感受,都是与众不同的。春季年年来临,而说“不记春”,似乎春天久已不到人间;屋中的尘土是不属于任何季节的,而说“起秋尘”,给了尘土以萧瑟的季节感;明月高悬天上,是普照众生的,而说“独照”,仿佛“月之有意相苦”(唐汝询《唐诗解》中语)。这些都是贺裳在《皱水轩词筌》中所说的“无理而妙”,以见伤心人别有怀抱。整首诗采用的是深一层的写法。

  这两首诗的后两句与王昌龄《西宫秋怨》末句“空悬明月待君王”一样,都出自司马相如《长门赋》“悬明月以自照兮,徂清夜于洞房”。但王诗中的主角是在愁怨中希冀得到君王的宠幸,命意是不可取的。李诗则活用《赋》语,另成境界,虽然以《长门怨》为题,却并不抱泥于陈皇后的故实。诗中展现的,是在人间地狱的深宫中过着孤寂凄凉生活的广大宫人的悲惨景况,揭开的是冷酷的封建制度的一角。

【Simple Translation】

  The poem “The Grudge of the Long Gate” is a title of an ancient music poem. According to “The Interpretation of Music”, “The poem “Changmen Grievance” was written for Empress Chen. After retiring to Changmen Palace, she was sad and pensive. …… Xiangru composed “Changmen Fu” for her. …… Later people called it “Changmen Grievance” because of its “Fugue”.” Empress Chen, nicknamed Ajiao, was the empress of Emperor Wu of Han. Emperor Wu said during his hour, “If I get Ajiao as a woman, I will store her as a golden house.” These two poems by Li Bai are based on this old theme to write about the sorrow of the courtesans in general. The two poems express the same theme, but when viewed separately, the layout is different, and when viewed together, they have a wonderful combination of pearl and pearl.

  The second poem focuses on emotions. Throughout the poem, I view things from my perspective and write about the scenery because of my feelings, so that the scenery is colored with strong emotions. In the first poem, the word “sorrow” is not written until the end of the previous poem, but in this poem, the word “sorrow” is revealed at the beginning, indicating that everything written below is what the sorrowful person sees in his eyes and feels in his heart.

  The first line of the poem, “Long sorrow in the hall of laurel does not remember spring”, not only reveals the word “sorrow”, but also the word “long sorrow”, which means that the person in the poem is not caused by the bleak scenery of the current autumn night. Even if spring is approaching the earth and everything is renewed, it can not alleviate this sorrow at all; and because it is hard to dispel the sorrow, she can not feel the spring, and even in her memory there is no spring. The second line of the poem, “The four houses of gold are filled with autumn dust”, is in line with the second line of the previous poem. Because there is no one in the house of gold, the dust is created in the four houses of gold; because it is the season of “fireflies”, the dust is created in autumn. The following three and four lines are “the dust of autumn”. The following three and four lines, “The mirror hangs in the blue sky at night, shining alone on the people in the palace at the long gate”, echo the first three and four lines. In the first line, it is written that the moonlight is about to arrive at Changmen, but it is not yet there; here it is written that the bright moon is hanging high in the sky and has already shone at Changmen, and the reader finally sees “the man in the palace at Changmen” in the moonlight.

  This “man in the palace at the long gate” has a different feeling about the season, the environment and the moonlight. The dust in the house does not belong to any season, but he says, “The dust rises in autumn”, giving the dust a sense of seasonal sluggishness; the bright moon hangs high in the sky, shining on all beings, but he says The moon hangs high in the sky and shines on all beings, but the words “shining alone” seem to be “the moon’s intention to be bitter to each other” (Tang Ruxuan’s “Interpretation of Tang Poems”). These are what He Shang calls “irrational but wonderful” in the “Chyuan of Wrinkled Water”, to see that the heartbreaker has a different vision. The whole poem is written in a deeper way.

  The last two lines of these two poems are the same as the last line of Wang Changling’s “Autumn Grievances in the Western Palace”, “The moon hangs in the air waiting for the king”, both from Sima Xiangru’s “Changmen Fu”, “Hanging the moon to shine on itself, feedback on the clear night in the cave”. But the protagonist in Wang’s poem is hoping for the king’s favor in the midst of sorrow, and the fate is undesirable. Li’s poem, on the other hand, makes use of the words of the Fugue to form another realm, and although it is titled “Changmen Grievance”, it does not hold to the storyline of Empress Chen. What the poem shows is the miserable situation of the vast number of palace people who lived a lonely and desolate life in the deep palace of hell on earth, revealing the corner of the cold feudal system.

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