赏善罚恶 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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shǎngshàn-fá’è 赏善罚恶

Reward Good and Punish Evil

奖赏善人,惩罚恶人。古人认为,国家、社会要治理得好,必须善善恶恶(喜爱善的,憎恶恶的),以弘扬良好的风尚;善恶依法而断,赏罚依法而行。合理合法有功是善,背理违法有罪是恶。赏与罚是治国治军的重要手段,是领导者掌握的重要权柄;赏罚有示范作用——赏为了劝善,罚为了惩恶,所以必须依照规矩,赏罚得当,善恶分明,这样才能形成健康向上的社会风尚。它是诚信精神和善恶观念的有机统一。

Ancient Chinese believe that if the state and society are to be well-governed, what is good must be loved and what is evil must be despised in order to create a positive social environment. Good and evil should be identified and rewards and punishments should be meted out in accordance with the law. In ancient times, the good meant being reasonable, meritorious and law-abiding, whereas the evil meant being unreasonable, lawbreaking and committing crimes. Rewards and punishments were important means for running the military and the state, and were important powers exercised by rulers. Rewards and punishments are demonstrative in nature. Rewards are given to encourage the good while punishments are meted out to punish the evil. Therefore, rewards and punishments must be meted out appropriately to the right persons in accordance with regulations. Only this will create a healthy and uplifting social atmosphere. Rewards and punishments help people to develop integrity and tell good from evil.

引例 Citations:

◎善人赏而暴人罚,则国必治矣。(《墨子·尚同下》)

(善人得到奖赏而恶人得到惩罚,国家就一定能治理好。)

With the good rewarded and the evil punished, the state will surely be well governed. (Mozi)

◎夫尚贤使能,赏有功,罚有罪……善善恶恶之应也。治必由之,古今一也。(《荀子·强国》)

(推崇贤良的人、使用有才能的人,奖赏有功的人,惩罚有罪的人……这是爱好善行、憎恶恶行的具体表现。治理国家必须这样做,古今是一致的。)

Esteem good people, put talents to good use, reward those who have performed meritorious deeds, and punish those who break the law… These are all expressions of loving what is good and punishing evil. This must be practiced in order to govern the country well, and this holds true for both now and the ancient times. (Xunzi)

◎圣王之立法也,其赏足以劝善,其威足以胜暴……善之生如春,恶之死如秋。(《韩非子·守道》)

(圣王确立法治,赏赐足以鼓励善行,威刑足以制服暴乱……好事物就像春天的草木蓬勃生长,坏事物就像秋天的草木枯萎凋谢。)

A sage king establishes the rule of law, gives out enough rewards to encourage good deeds, and metes out enough punishments to suppress violence… Then good things will grow like vegetation in spring, and misconduct will wither and die like vegetation in autumn. (Hanfeizi)

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