元和体 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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Yuánhé tǐ 元和体

The Yuanhe Style of Poetry

指唐宪宗元和年间(806—820)开始流行的诗歌体式及风格。有广狭二义:广义的理解指元和以来的各种新体诗文,一般认为元和以后流行的新的文风、诗风,是由韩愈(768—824)、元稹(779—831)、白居易(772—846)、张籍(767?—830?)等元和年间的著名作家开创的;狭义的理解则是指元稹、白居易诗歌中的长篇排律和中短篇杂体诗。元稹、白居易的诗歌注重叙事,如《连昌宫词》《长恨歌》《琵琶行》都是长篇叙事诗的代表作;其次是注重诗歌形式的通俗化,具体说就是诗的语言明白晓畅,容易为读者理解记忆;注意诗歌与音乐的结合,韵律的优美和谐,便于唱诵。

This term refers to the poetic style most popular during the rule of Emperor Xianzong (806-820) of the Tang Dynasty under the reign title of Yuanhe. It can be understood either broadly or narrowly. In a broad sense, the Yuanhe style of poetry refers to all new forms of verse prevalent from the Yuanhe era onward, created by famed Yuanhe-era writers such as Han Yu (768-824), Yuan Zhen (779-831), Bai Juyi (772-846), and Zhang Ji (767?-830?). In a narrow sense, it refers to lengthy regulated verse and shorter poems of mixed metrical schemes in poetic composition of the works of Yuan Zhen and Bai Juyi. Both poets paid careful attention to the narrative function of poetry. For example, “A Song of the Lianchang Palace,” “A Song of Unending Sorrow,” and “A Song of the Pipa Player” are all representative of lengthy narrative poetry. They also pursued a more popular style of poetry, using vernacular language which was intelligible and easy to remember for ordinary readers. Moreover, they tried to combine poetry and music, making their works rhythmically beautiful and harmonious, thus suitable for chanting or singing.

引例 Citations:

◎元和已后,为文笔则学奇诡于韩愈,学苦涩于樊宗师;歌行则学流荡于张籍;诗草则学矫激于孟郊,学浅切于白居易,学淫靡于元稹,俱名为“元和体”。(李肇《唐国史补》卷下)

(元和以后,写文章的人学韩愈的奇特怪异,学樊宗师的晦涩生僻;写歌行体长诗的人则学张籍的放荡不羁;写诗的人则学孟郊的奇异偏激,学白居易的浅易切当,学元稹的浮华艳丽,这些当时都称为“元和体”。)

Since the Yuanhe era, essay writers have come to imitate Han Yu’s oddity and Fan Zongshi’s opaqueness; writers of long poetic songs have taken fancy to Zhang Ji’s bold, uninhibited ways; and poets embraced Meng Jiao’s strangeness and extremity, Bai Juyi’s intelligibility and aptness, and Yuan Zhen’s pomposity and flamboyance. All this constitutes what is known as the “Yuanhe style.” (Li Zhao: A Supplement to Liu Su’s Dynastic History)

◎[元]稹聪警绝人,年少有才名,与太原白居易友善,工为诗,善状咏风态物色,当时言诗者称元白焉。自衣冠士子,至闾阎下俚,悉传讽之,号为“元和体”。(《旧唐书·元稹传》)

(元稹聪慧过人,年少时就有才名,与太原人白居易是好友,他们都擅长写诗,善于描摹歌咏事物的形态景色,当时谈论诗歌的人都会提及元白。从士大夫、儒林学子到市井百姓,都在流传歌咏他们的诗,称之为“元和体”。)

Yuan Zhen was unusually talented and achieved renown at a very young age. He and Bai Juyi, a native of Taiyuan were good friends. Both of them were remarkable at writing poetry, depicting and extolling things in all colors and forms. All lovers of poetry at the time would mention Yuan Zhen and Bai Juyi together. Everybody, whether they were scholar-officials, students or ordinary people, was found chanting their poetry, calling it “Yuanhe-style poetry.” (The Old Tang History)

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