fú zhàn, yǒngqì yě 夫战，勇气也
Fighting Takes Courage.
“Courage” is what it takes to go into a battle. It means the fighting spirit of an army, its will to win and its fearless heroism. The word “courage” not only refers to the spirit of individual soldiers, but also that of the entire army. It is a necessary condition or pre-requisite for winning the victory. Going into battle is dangerous. Without sufficient courage, other favorable conditions will hardly matter. What is implied is the following military wisdom: Of all the factors needed for a victory, the human factor is of primary importance; of all the human factors required, human spirit is of primary importance.
Fighting takes courage. Beating the battle drum for the first time, soldiers will be aroused; the second time it is beaten, they will become less enthusiastic; and the third time, they will lose their fighting spirit completely. As opposed to the enemy soldiers who have lost their fighting spirit, our soldiers are full of it. This is the reason why they can defeat the enemy. (Zuo’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)
A victory is won because of the valor of an army whereas defeat is suffered due to its cowardice. (Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals)