28.9 C
China
星期六, 22 6 月, 2024
spot_img
HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy欧阳中石 行草:杜甫《赠花卿》

欧阳中石 行草:杜甫《赠花卿》

Listen to this article

欧阳中石 行草:杜甫《赠花卿》


【释文】锦城丝管日纷纷,半入江风半入云。此曲只应天上有,人间能得几回闻。

【款识】杜甫诗赠花卿,中石。

【简析】

  这首绝句,字面上明白如话,但对它的主旨,历来注家颇多异议。有人认为它只是赞美乐曲,并无弦外之音;而杨慎《升庵诗话》却说:“花卿在蜀颇僭用天子礼乐,子美作此讥之,而意在言外,最得诗人之旨。”沈德潜《说诗晬语》也说:“诗贵牵意,有言在此而意在彼者,杜少陵刺花敬定之僭窃,则想新曲于天上。”杨、沈之说是较为可取的。

  在中国封建社会里,礼仪制度极为严格,即使音乐,亦有异常分明的等级界限。据《旧唐书》载,唐朝建立后,高祖李渊即命太常少卿祖孝孙考订大唐雅乐,“皇帝临轩,奏太和;王公出入,奏舒和;皇太子轩悬出入,奏承和;……”这些条分缕析的乐制都是当朝的成规定法,稍有违背,即是紊乱纲常,大逆不道。

  花卿,名敬定,是成都尹崔光远的部将,曾因平叛立过功。但他居功自傲,骄恣不法,放纵士卒大掠东蜀;又目无朝廷,僭用天子音乐。杜甫赠诗予以委婉的讽刺。

  耐人寻味的是,作者并没有对花卿明言指摘,而是采取了一语双关的巧妙手法。字面上看,这俨然是一首十分出色的乐曲赞美诗。你看:

  “锦城丝管日纷纷”,锦城,即成都;丝管,指弦乐器和管乐器;纷纷,本意是既多而乱的样子,通常是用来形容那些看得见、摸得着的具体事物的,这里却用来比状看不见、摸不着的抽象的乐曲,这就从人的听觉和视觉的通感上,化无形为有形,极其准确、形象地描绘出弦管那种轻悠、柔靡,杂错而又和谐的音乐效果。“半入江风半入云”也是采用同样的写法:那悠扬动听的乐曲,从花卿家的宴席上飞出,随风荡漾在锦江上,冉冉飘入蓝天白云间。这两句诗,使我们真切地感受到了乐曲的那种“行云流水”般的美妙。两个“半”字空灵活脱,给全诗增添了不少的情趣。

  乐曲如此之美,作者禁不住慨叹说:“此曲只应天上有,人间能得几回闻。”天上的仙乐,人间当然难得一闻,难得闻而竟闻,愈见其妙得出奇了。

  全诗四句,前两句对乐曲作具体形象的描绘,是实写;后两句以天上的仙乐相夸,是遐想。因实而虚,虚实相生,将乐曲的美妙赞誉到了极度。

  然而这仅仅是字面上的意思,其弦外之音是意味深长的。这可以从“天上”和“人间”两词看出端倪。“天上”者,天子所居皇宫也;“人间”者,皇宫之外也。这是封建社会极常用的双关语。说乐曲属于“天上”,且加“只应”一词限定,既然是“只应天上有”,那么,“人间”当然就不应“得闻”。不应“得闻”而竟然“得闻“,不仅“几回闻”,而且“日纷纷”,于是乎,作者的讽刺之旨就从这种矛盾的对立中,既含蓄婉转又确切有力地显现出来了。

  宋人张天觉曾论诗文的讽刺云:“讽刺则不可怒张,怒张则筋骨露矣。”(《诗人玉屑》卷九引)杜甫这首诗柔中有刚,棉里藏针,寓讽于谀,意在言外,忠言而不逆耳,可谓作得恰到好处。正如杨伦所评:“似谀似讽,所谓言之者无罪,闻之者足戒也。此等绝句,何减龙标(王昌龄)、供奉(李白)。”(《杜诗镜铨》)

【Simple Translation】

  This stanza is literally as clear as words, but there have been many disagreements among commentators about its main meaning. Some people think that it is only a praise of music, and there is no meaning beyond the strings; but Yang Shen’s “Sheng’an Poetic Discourse” says: “Hua Qing in Shu is quite arrogant to use the rites and music of the Son of Heaven, and Zimei made this to ridicule it, but the meaning is beyond the words, and it is the most poet’s purpose.” Shen Deqian “said the first year of the poem” also said: “poetry expensive hold intention, there are words here and the intention in the other, Du Shaoling prick Hua Jingding’s usurpation, then want to new song in the sky.” Yang and Shen’s words are more desirable.

  In China’s feudal society, the ritual system is extremely strict, even music, there are also exceptionally clear boundaries of the hierarchy. According to the “Old Book of Tang” contains, after the establishment of the Tang dynasty, the high ancestor Li Yuan that the order of the Secretary Zu Xiaosun Taichang examination of the Tang music, “the emperor Linxuan, playing Taihe; princes in and out, playing Shu and; the Crown Prince Xuan hanging in and out, playing Cheng and; ……” these articles are divided into the music system is the dynasty’s The law was established, the slightest violation, that is, the disorder of the system, the treason.

  Hua Qing, named Jing Ding, was a general of Cui Guangyuan in Chengdu, and had made merits for quelling the rebellion. But he was proud of his achievements, arrogant and unlawful, indulging his soldiers to plunder Eastern Shu; he also ignored the court and used the music of the Son of Heaven. Du Fu gave a poem to euphemistically satirize him.

  What is interesting is that the author does not explicitly accuse Hua Qing, but adopts the clever technique of double entendre. Literally, this is a very good musical hymn. Look at this:

  ”It is usually used to describe concrete things that can be seen and touched, but here it is used to describe the abstract music that cannot be seen or touched. This is an extremely accurate and imaginative portrayal of the light, soft, miscellaneous and harmonious musical effect of the strings and pipes. The same style of writing is used in “half into the river wind and half into the clouds”: the melodious music flies out from the banquet of Hua Qing’s house, swirls on the Jinjiang River with the wind, and floats into the blue sky and white clouds. These two lines make us feel the beauty of the music like “flowing clouds and flowing water”. The two words “half” are airy and vivid, adding a lot of interest to the whole poem.

  The music is so beautiful that the author cannot help but exclaim: “This song should only be found in the sky, how many times can we hear it on earth.” The music of the immortals in the sky is certainly rare on earth, and the fact that it is rare to hear it is more and more surprising.

  In the first two lines of the poem, the music is depicted in a concrete way, which is a realistic description; in the second two lines, the music of the immortals in the sky is boasted, which is a reverie. The second two lines boast of the heavenly music, which is a reverie. The reality and the imaginary, the imaginary and the real, praise the beauty of the music to the extreme.

  However, this is only the literal meaning, the meaning beyond the string is profound. This can be seen from the words “heavenly” and “earthly”. The “heavenly” one is the palace where the Son of Heaven lives; the “earthly” one is outside the palace. This is a very common pun in feudal society. Say the music belongs to the “heaven”, and add “should only” word qualification, since it is “should only be on the sky”, then, “earth Since it is “only found in heaven”, then, of course, “on earth” should not be “heard”. The author’s satirical intention is to change the meaning of the word “only” from “only” to “only”. The author’s satirical intent emerges from this contradictory opposition, both subtle and powerful.

  Zhang Tianjue, a Song scholar, has discussed the irony of poetry and writing: “Irony is not to be angered, but to be angered is to reveal the tendons and bones.” (Poet’s Jade Scraps, vol. 9, cited) Du Fu’s poem is soft but rigid, with a needle hidden in the cotton, irony in flattery, meaning outside the words, loyalty but not against the ear, can be said to have done just right. As Yang Lun commented: “It seems to be flattering and ironic, as the saying goes, those who say it are not guilty, and those who hear it are warned. This kind of absolute line is less than that of Wang Changling and Li Bai.” (Du Poetry Mirror Ambrose)

Rate this post
RELATED ARTICLES
- Advertisment -

Most Popular

Random University

Flag Counter

Recent Comments

Translate »