白描- Chinese philosophy and culture

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báimiáo 白描

Plain Line Drawing

中国画的表现手法之一。用墨线勾勒描摹物象的轮廓,不设颜色。白描多用于画人物、花卉,着墨不多,气韵生动。白描源于古代的“白画”。一般运用同一墨色,通过线条的长短、粗细、轻重、转折等表现物象的质感和动势。白描流行于晋唐时期,宋代以后自成一格。晋代顾恺之、北宋李公麟、元代赵孟頫等擅长铁线描,唐代吴道子、南宋马和之等擅长兰叶描。白描也是文学创作中非常重要的表现手法,主要指用朴素简练的笔墨,不加烘托渲染,描绘出鲜明生动的形象。古典小说《水浒传》《三国演义》等多有高超的白描手法。

Plain line drawing is one of the traditional Chinese styles of artistic presentation. It features the contours of images sketched in black ink lines. This style of painting is mostly used in painting human figures and flowers. Although not much ink is applied, this technique can achieve a very lively effect. Plain line drawing originated from the plain drawing of earlier times; through variations in lines’ length, thickness, pressure, and changes in trajectory, the artist can portray the texture and motion of images. Plain line drawing was prevalent from the Jin Dynasty through the Tang Dynasty. During the Song Dynasty, it formed a distinctive style of its own. Gu Kaizhi of the Jin Dynasty, Li Gonglin of the Northern Song Dynasty, and Zhao Mengfu of the Yuan Dynasty specialized in painting lines of perfectly even width like iron wire, while Wu Daozi of the Tang Dynasty and Ma Hezhi of the Southern Song Dynasty were renowned for their skill in drawing thick, wavy lines resembling orchid leaves. Plain drawing is also a very important style of expression in narrative literature. In this context it refers to a simple and concise style of writing, without embellishment, so as to produce fresh, lively images. In classic novels such as Outlaws of the Marsh or Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one finds abundant instances of a plain drawing style of writing.

引例 Citation:

◎白描画易纤弱柔媚,最难遒劲高逸,今观此图如屈铁丝,唐有阎令、宋有伯时、元有赵文敏可称鼎足矣。(王穉登《〈维摩演教图〉跋》)

(白描所描摹出的画作容易流于纤细瘦弱、阴柔妩媚,最难表现遒劲有力、高古飘逸的感觉,而今观赏此画,用笔好似弯曲铁丝一般[刚劲有力],唐代的阎立本、北宋的李公麟、元代的赵孟頫可称得上三足鼎立。)

Paintings drawn with plain lines are prone to being overly fine or weak, often lacking a soaring spirit and vigor despite a feminine beauty. But today, after admiring this particular painting, I have found its strokes to be vigorous like bent wire. (When it comes to vigorous brushwork,) Yan Liben of the Tang Dynasty, Li Gonglin of the Northern Song Dynasty, and Zhao Mengfu of the Yuan Dynasty were truly a Great Triad. (Wang Zhideng: Postscript to Korimaro Preaches a Sermon)

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