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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)

白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)

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白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)






  诗的前四句,很象是当时军中流行的作战歌诀 ,颇富韵致,饶有理趣,深得议论要领。所以黄生说它“似谣似谚,最是乐府妙境”。两个“当”,两个“先”,妙语连珠,开人胸臆,提出了作战步骤的关键所在,强调部伍要强悍,士气要高昂,对敌有方略,智勇须并用。四句以排句出之,如数家珍,宛若总结战斗经验。然而从整篇看,它还不是作品的主旨所在,而只是下文的衬笔。后四句才道出赴边作战应有的终极目的。



【Simple Translation】

  The poet first wrote “Out of the Seaside” and then “Out of the Seaside”; “before” and “after” are added to show the difference. The poem “Exodus” is about the conquest of Tubo by Goshu Han in the late Tianbao period, and is intended to satirize the militaristic efforts of Emperor Tang Xuanzong.

  The first four lines of the poem are very much like a popular battle song in the army at that time, which is rich in rhyme and reasoning and has a deep sense of argument. That is why Huang said it is “like a rhyme or a proverb, the most wonderful state of music”. The two “when” and two “first” are wonderful words that open people’s minds, suggesting the key to combat steps, emphasizing that the troops should be strong, morale should be high, there should be a strategy against the enemy, and wisdom and courage should be used. The four sentences are presented in a row, as if summarizing battle experience. However, from the perspective of the whole piece, it is not the main theme of the work, but only the liner notes for the following. It is the last four lines that tell the ultimate purpose of the battle to the border.

  ”There is no limit to the number of people we can kill, but the countries have their own borders. If we can stop the invasion, why should we kill more?” The poet speaks generously and straightforwardly, making a deafening call. He believed that a strong army is only for the purpose of guarding the border, not for killing and destroying. Whether it is “shooting horses” to control the enemy, whether it is “killing and injuring” as a last resort, whether it is “capturing the king” with a strong army, it should be “to control the invasion “for the limit, not to move indiscriminately, and should not be able to militarize, invade foreign countries. This idea of using war to fight and using strong troops to stop invasion is a grand and righteous theory and a good policy for the border; it reflects the interests of the country and the wishes of the people. Therefore, Zhang Hui said in “Du Shi Fu Chui” that these lines are “great economic words, spoken through the mouth of a soldier”.

  In terms of artistic conception, the author adopts the technique of first raising and then suppressing: the first four lines start with a popular and philosophical rhyme and proverb about how to train and use military force and how to overcome the enemy; the second four lines are about how to restrain martial power and avoid killing and attacking, forcing out the original purpose of “stopping the sword for martial power”. The second four lines are about how to restrain martial arts, avoiding killing and attacking, forcing out the original purpose of “stopping the sword for martial arts”. Without reliable armament, foreign invasion cannot be stopped; however, it is not desirable to be militaristic with strong armament. Therefore, the poet advocates not only having a strong army, but also “controlling invasion” as the limit, which is in the interest of the broadest people. Pu Qilong, in “Reading Du’s Heart,” says with great appreciation: “The first four lines are soaring, and the next four lines are suddenly swept away, as the hare rises and falls, as it were! As it is!” The words “soaring” and “swept around” here refer to the rushing momentum and waves in the work; the words “the rabbit rises and falls” here mean that the rushing momentum naturally forces out The “falcon” here means that the deep theme of “embracing a strong army and opposing militarism” is naturally forced out of the rushing momentum. Among the Tang writings, there are few works that are distinguished by arguments, but this poem is known for its high intention, righteousness, philosophy and momentum.

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