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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)

白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)

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白蕉 行书:杜甫《前出塞九首》(其六)


【释文】挽弓当挽强,用箭当用长。射人先射马,擒贼先擒王。杀人亦有限,列国自有疆。苟能制侵陵,岂在多杀伤。

【款识】少陵句,白蕉书。

【注释】挽弓:拉开、开弓。擒:捉、拿。

【简析】

  诗人先写《出塞》九首,后又写《出塞》五首;加“前”、“后”以示区别。《前出塞》是写天宝末年哥舒翰征伐吐蕃的时事,意在讽刺唐玄宗的开边黩武,本篇原列第六首,是其中较有名的一篇。

  诗的前四句,很象是当时军中流行的作战歌诀 ,颇富韵致,饶有理趣,深得议论要领。所以黄生说它“似谣似谚,最是乐府妙境”。两个“当”,两个“先”,妙语连珠,开人胸臆,提出了作战步骤的关键所在,强调部伍要强悍,士气要高昂,对敌有方略,智勇须并用。四句以排句出之,如数家珍,宛若总结战斗经验。然而从整篇看,它还不是作品的主旨所在,而只是下文的衬笔。后四句才道出赴边作战应有的终极目的。

  “杀人亦有限,列国自有疆。苟能制侵陵,岂在多杀伤?”诗人慷慨陈词,直抒胸臆,发出振聋发聩的呼声。他认为,拥强兵只为守边,赴边不为杀伐。不论是为制敌而“射马”,不论是不得已而“杀伤”,不论是拥强兵而“擒王”,都应以“制侵陵”为限度,不能乱动干戈,更不应以黩武为能事,侵犯异邦。这种以战去战,以强兵制止侵略的思想,是恢宏正论,安边良策;它反映了国家的利益,人民的愿望。所以,张会在《杜诗府粹》里说,这几句“大经济语,借戍卒口说出”。

  从艺术构思说,作者采用了先扬后抑的手法:前四句以通俗而富哲理的谣谚体开势,讲如何练兵用武,怎样克敌制胜;后四句却写如何节制武功,力避杀伐,逼出“止戈为武”本旨。先行辅笔,后行主笔;辅笔与主笔之间,看似掠转,实是顺接,看似矛盾,实为辩证。因为如无可靠的武备,就不能制止外来侵略;但自恃强大武装而穷兵黩武,也是不可取的。所以诗人主张既拥强兵,又以“制侵陵”为限,才符合最广大人民的利益。浦起龙在《读杜心解》中很有体会地说:“上四(句)如此飞腾,下四(句)忽然掠转,兔起鹘落,如是!如是!”这里说的“飞腾”和“掠转”,就是指作品中的奔腾气势和波澜;这里说的“兔起鹘落”就是指在奔腾的气势中自然地逼出“拥强兵而反黩武”的深邃题旨。在唐人的篇什中,以议论取胜的作品较少,而本诗却以此见称;它以立意高、正气宏、富哲理、有气势而博得好评。

【Simple Translation】

  The poet first wrote “Out of the Seaside” and then “Out of the Seaside”; “before” and “after” are added to show the difference. The poem “Exodus” is about the conquest of Tubo by Goshu Han in the late Tianbao period, and is intended to satirize the militaristic efforts of Emperor Tang Xuanzong.

  The first four lines of the poem are very much like a popular battle song in the army at that time, which is rich in rhyme and reasoning and has a deep sense of argument. That is why Huang said it is “like a rhyme or a proverb, the most wonderful state of music”. The two “when” and two “first” are wonderful words that open people’s minds, suggesting the key to combat steps, emphasizing that the troops should be strong, morale should be high, there should be a strategy against the enemy, and wisdom and courage should be used. The four sentences are presented in a row, as if summarizing battle experience. However, from the perspective of the whole piece, it is not the main theme of the work, but only the liner notes for the following. It is the last four lines that tell the ultimate purpose of the battle to the border.

  ”There is no limit to the number of people we can kill, but the countries have their own borders. If we can stop the invasion, why should we kill more?” The poet speaks generously and straightforwardly, making a deafening call. He believed that a strong army is only for the purpose of guarding the border, not for killing and destroying. Whether it is “shooting horses” to control the enemy, whether it is “killing and injuring” as a last resort, whether it is “capturing the king” with a strong army, it should be “to control the invasion “for the limit, not to move indiscriminately, and should not be able to militarize, invade foreign countries. This idea of using war to fight and using strong troops to stop invasion is a grand and righteous theory and a good policy for the border; it reflects the interests of the country and the wishes of the people. Therefore, Zhang Hui said in “Du Shi Fu Chui” that these lines are “great economic words, spoken through the mouth of a soldier”.

  In terms of artistic conception, the author adopts the technique of first raising and then suppressing: the first four lines start with a popular and philosophical rhyme and proverb about how to train and use military force and how to overcome the enemy; the second four lines are about how to restrain martial power and avoid killing and attacking, forcing out the original purpose of “stopping the sword for martial power”. The second four lines are about how to restrain martial arts, avoiding killing and attacking, forcing out the original purpose of “stopping the sword for martial arts”. Without reliable armament, foreign invasion cannot be stopped; however, it is not desirable to be militaristic with strong armament. Therefore, the poet advocates not only having a strong army, but also “controlling invasion” as the limit, which is in the interest of the broadest people. Pu Qilong, in “Reading Du’s Heart,” says with great appreciation: “The first four lines are soaring, and the next four lines are suddenly swept away, as the hare rises and falls, as it were! As it is!” The words “soaring” and “swept around” here refer to the rushing momentum and waves in the work; the words “the rabbit rises and falls” here mean that the rushing momentum naturally forces out The “falcon” here means that the deep theme of “embracing a strong army and opposing militarism” is naturally forced out of the rushing momentum. Among the Tang writings, there are few works that are distinguished by arguments, but this poem is known for its high intention, righteousness, philosophy and momentum.

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