至乐无乐- Chinese philosophy and culture

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zhìlè-wúlè 至乐无乐

Utmost Happiness Lies in Not Aware of the Happiness.

至高的快乐是内心祥和而超越乐与不乐的判断。庄子(前369?—前286)认为,快乐应该依从于自己的本心,如果以世俗观念为判断依据,可能会背离生命的本质;如果为情感和欲望所驱使,可能会伴随失落与伤害。快乐与否的判断实际上源于对利害得失的判断,而利害得失是相对的、可变的,因此,忘却得失利害、没有了快乐意念才是“至乐”的境界。“至乐无乐”说体现出中国古代文人学士通达的心性、自由多元的人生价值观,激发了他们反思、批判与超越的精神。

Utmost happiness is an inner peace that transcends any judgment as to whether we are happy or not. Zhuangzi (369?-286 BC) held that happiness should be dictated solely by the heart. If we measure happiness against a worldly criterion, we may lose sight of life’s essential purpose. If we are driven by emotions and base desires, harm and loss may be the result. Our happiness in fact depends on our judgment of loss or gain. However, loss or gain is relative and subject to change. Only when we totally forget this question can we attain utmost happiness. This term reflects the spiritual magnanimity and the open, pluralistic worldview of ancient Chinese scholars, while urging them to greater effort at self-reflection, criticism, and transcendence.

引例 Citations:

◎果有乐无有哉?吾以无为诚乐矣,又俗之所大苦也。故曰:“至乐无乐,至誉无誉。”(《庄子·至乐》)

(世间果真是存在快乐呢,还是不存在呢?我认为没有快乐与不快乐的意识才是真正的快乐,而这又是世人为之大感苦恼的事情。所以说:“至高的快乐是无需感到快乐,最高的荣誉是无需众人赞誉。”)

Is there happiness or not in this world of ours? My belief is that utmost happiness lies in not even being aware of it. However, this very thought is exactly what agonizes us all. Hence the maxim: “Utmost happiness is when we do not strive for it, and highest praise consists in having no need for praise.” (Zhuangzi)

◎孔子曰:“请问游是。”老聃曰:“夫得是,至美至乐也,得至美而游乎至乐,谓之至人。”(《庄子·田子方》)

(孔子说:“请问游心于万物的本原状态是怎样的情景?”老聃说:“达到这样的境界,就领略到极致的美,畅游于极致的快乐中,达到这种人生境界的人就称为‘至人’。”)

Confucius asked: “When the heart roams free between heaven and earth, what will the scene look like?” Laozi answered: “Once a person has reached that realm, he will be able to savor beauty at its best and bask in extreme happiness. Such a person is known as a ‘man of the highest order.'” (Zhuangzi)

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