象外之象,景外之景 – Chinese philosophy and culture

0
111
Listen to this article

xiàng wài zhī xiàng, jǐng wài zhī jǐng 象外之象,景外之景

The Image Beyond an Image, the Scene Beyond a Scene

欣赏诗歌的过程中所产生的文本形象之外的第二艺术形象,是读者经联想产生的精神意象。前一个“象”“景”指诗歌作品中直接描写的物象和景象,后一个“象”“景”则是指由此引发读者多方面联想所营造出的新的意象和意境。由道家与《周易》关于“言”(语言)、“意”(思想或意义)、“象”(象征某种深意的具体形象)三者关系的学说发展而来。魏晋至唐代的诗学倡导“象外之象,景外之景”,旨在追求文本之外的精神蕴涵和意象之美。这一术语同时也表现了中华民族的艺术趣味与审美境界。

Readers of poetry create images and scenes in their minds based on what they are reading. These are the readers’ imaginations based on what is depicted in the poems. The term comes from Daoist theories about the relationships between discourses, ideas or meanings, and images that symbolize profound meaning in The Book of Changes. From the Wei, Jin to the Tang Dynasty, poetry critics sought “the image beyond an image, the scene beyond a scene” in order to pursue the spiritual implications and the beauty of images that are beyond textual descriptions. This term gives expression to the artistic and aesthetic tastes and ideals of the Chinese nation.

引例 Citations:

◎诗家之景,如蓝田日暖,良玉生烟,可望而不可置于眉睫之前也。象外之象,景外之景,岂容易可谈哉!(司空图《与[汪]极浦书》)

(诗歌所描写的景致,犹如蓝田蕴藏着美玉,玉的烟气在温暖的阳光中若隐若现,可以远远望见,但是不能就近清楚地观察。通过欣赏诗歌景象而产生的之外的景象,岂可容易表达出来呀!)

The imagery of poets is like the sunshine warming Lantian so that fine jades under its ground issue smoke: They can be seen from afar but not observed right before your eyes. The image beyond an image, the scene beyond a scene – are they not simply beyond words! (Sikong Tu: Letter to Wang Jipu)

◎盖诗之所以为诗者,其神在象外,其象在言外,其言在意外。(彭辂《诗集自序》)

(大概诗之所以成为诗,就在于神韵在物象之外,物象在语言之外,语言在意义之外。)

That which makes a poem a poem is a poetic appeal beyond the image, an image beyond the words and words saying things beyond their meaning. (Peng Lu: Preface to Collected Poems of Peng Lu)

Rate this post

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here