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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy陈鸿寿 隶书:刘禹锡《元和甲午岁,诏书尽征江湘逐客,余自武陵赴京》

陈鸿寿 隶书:刘禹锡《元和甲午岁,诏书尽征江湘逐客,余自武陵赴京》

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陈鸿寿 隶书:刘禹锡《元和甲午岁,诏书尽征江湘逐客,余自武陵赴京》


【释文】雷雨江山起卧龙,武陵樵客蹑仙踪。十年楚水枫林下,今夜初闻长乐钟。

【款识】曼生陈鸿寿。

【简析】

  永贞革新失败之后,刘禹锡贬往朗州(今湖南省常德市),“元和甲午岁”,即唐宪宗元和九年(814),这一年的十二月,“执政有怜其才欲渐进之者,悉召至京师”(见《资治通鉴》卷二三九)。这首诗是刘禹锡奉召返京,宿于长安近郊的驿站中写的。“续来诸君子”,指当时“八司马”中仍在贬所这次被召还的柳宗元、韩晔、韩泰、陈谏。

  “雷雨江山起卧龙”,“雷雨”,比喻召回朝廷的诏书。本来唐宪宗在元和元年曾经下诏:“左降官韦执谊、韩泰、陈谏、柳宗元、刘禹锡、韩晔、凌准、程异等人,纵逢恩赦,不在量移之限”(《旧唐书·宪宗纪上》)。这就等于说永远处放,所以这一次接到召回朝廷的诏书,诗人感到简直是一陈天外飞来的“雷雨”,它来的那么突然,而又那么势不可挡,使得这些多年蛰居于江湖的“卧龙”都腾跃而起。人称隐居于隆中的诸葛亮为“卧龙”,诗人用“卧龙”一词比喻他们这些被召回的伙伴,是值得玩味的。刘禹锡虽然贬居朗州,但是“蹈道之心一,而俟时之志坚”(《何卜赋》),总是期待着“故态复还,宝心再起”(《砥石赋》)。就当时的时局来看,元和九年七月淮西节度使吴少阳死,其子吴元济匿丧,自领军务,蓄谋叛乱。多事之秋,正是任贤之时,所以柳宗元在归途中是那样兴奋,那样急于为国效力,他说:“为报春风汨罗道,莫将波浪枉明时”(《泪罗遇风》)。同时,元和九年十月,专事逢迎以取悦于上的宰相李吉甫死了,韦贯之拜相,韦贯之是一个“抑浮华,先行实”的人物,所谓“执政怜其才”,也就是指象韦贯之一类的朝官,怜爱刘禹锡等人的匡时济世之才,正是由于这些主客观的原因,刘禹锡才能写出“雷雨江山起卧龙”这样有气势、有信心的诗句。

  汉置武陵郡,隋罢郡改为朗州,刘禹锡贬为朗州司马,故谦称“武陵樵客”;蹑,追随;仙踪,仙郎的踪迹,唐时尚书省官署被看作是仙人居住的地方,尚书省诸曹郎官称为仙郎,这句话的意思是:“续来诸君子”将要在朝廷任职,我这个来自武陵之地的樵夫也要追随于诸位之后。诗的第二句就其内容看是承上句而来,然而“武陵樵客”引出了“十年楚水枫林下”,而“蹑仙踪”又为“今夜初闻长乐钟”伏笔,针线细密,结构严谨。刘禹锡从永贞元年(805)被贬,到这次奉诏返京,行至长安近郊已是元和十年(815),正好是整整十个年头了;武陵古属楚国,地多江湖、枫林;西汉长乐宫中有钟室,这里的“长乐钟”,代指唐代宫中的钟声;“初闻”二字值得注意,“初闻”,不是说刘禹锡生平第一次听到这钟声,应该联系第三句来理解,意思是说自己度过了“十年楚水枫林下”的放逐生涯之后,今夜又开始听到长安宫中的钟声。这钟声是那么熟悉,却又是那么新鲜,那么生疏,它会在诗人的心中引起什么反响呢?诗人没有讲,有人说“以复闻长乐钟声为幸耳”(唐汝询《唐诗解》);有人则以为这一句“是最伤心之处”(徐增《而庵说唐诗》),这两种看法都有道理,也都不免失之偏颇,实际上恐怕很难用一个幸字,或者是一个伤字来概括。这钟声是可以使他产生“疑比庄周梦,情同苏武归”(柳宗元《朗州窦常员外寄刘二十八诗见促行骑走笔酬赠》)的喜悦;也可以唤起他对“昔年意气结群英,几度朝回一字行”的快意生活的回忆;“若为多情寻往事,人间何处不伤神”,这钟声也会使他重新咀嚼“十年憔悴武陵溪,鹤病深林玉在泥”(窦巩《送刘禹锡》)的痛苦;这钟声也会触动他对那些同遭贬逐而今已经逝去的朋友的悼念;当然长安就在身边,朝廷就在眼前,这钟声还会在他的心中泛起希望的绿波,……“今夜初闻长乐钟”,既非景语,亦非情语,它言浅语直,寓情于事,只此轻轻一笔,则千种心事,万般滋味,尽在其中。所谓“诗至入妙,有言下未尝毕露,其情则已跃然者”,评比甚当。

【Simple Translation】

  After the failure of Yongzhen’s innovation, Liu Yuxi was relegated to Langzhou (present-day Changde City, Hunan Province), “in the year of Yuanhe Jiawu,” i.e., the ninth year of the Tang Emperor Xianzong Yuanhe (814), in December of that year, “the ruling government had pity on his talent and wanted to improve it gradually, so he was summoned to the capital” (see “Zizhi Tongjian (see Zizhi Tongjian, Volume 239). This poem was written by Liu Yuxi when he was called back to the capital and stayed in a post station in the suburbs of Chang’an. “The poem refers to Liu Zongyuan, Han Ye, Han Tai, and Chen Jian, who were still in the deportation camp and were called back this time.

  ”The “thunderstorm” is a metaphor for the imperial edict to recall the court. In the first year of the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Xianzong issued an edict: “The left surrendered officials, such as Wei Zhiyi, Han Tai, Chen Jian, Liu Zongyuan, Liu Yuxi, Han Ye, Ling Zhun, Cheng Yi, etc., even if they are pardoned, they are not in the limit of the amount of removal” (Old Book of Tang – Xianzong Ji Shang). This is the same as saying that they will be released forever, so this time when they received the imperial edict to recall the court, the poets felt that it was a “thunderstorm” from the sky, which came so suddenly and so unstoppably that these “lying dragons” who had been dormant in the rivers and lakes for many years leapt up. The “thunderstorm” came so suddenly and with such force that these “crouching dragons” who had been dormant in the jungle for years leapt up. Zhuge Liang, who lived in seclusion in Longzhong, was called “Crouching Dragon”, and the poet’s use of the word “Crouching Dragon” as a metaphor for their recalled companions is worth playing with. Although Liu Yuxi was relegated to Longzhou, he was “united in his desire to follow the path and firm in his will to live in time” (“He Bu Fu”) and always looked forward to “the return of his old state and the resurgence of his treasure” (“Ji Shi Fu”). In terms of the situation at that time, in July of the ninth year of Yuanhe, Wu Shaoyang, the Huaixi festival envoy, died, his son Wu Yuanji, who was in hiding, led his own military affairs, plotting rebellion. Therefore, Liu Zongyuan was so excited and eager to serve his country during his return journey, saying: “To report the spring wind Miluo Road, don’t let the waves waste the bright time” (“Tearing the wind in Luo”). At the same time, in October of the ninth year of Yuanhe, Li Jifu, the chancellor, who was dedicated to pleasing the government, died, and Wei Guanzhi became the prime minister, a figure who “suppressed pomp and circumstance before reality”. It is because of these subjective and objective reasons that Liu Yuxi was able to write such an imposing and confident poem as “Thunderstorm in the rivers and mountains rises the crouching dragon”.

  In the Han Dynasty, Wuling County was established, but in the Sui Dynasty, the county was changed to Langzhou, and Liu Yuxi was relegated to the post of Secretary of Langzhou, so he was humbly called “Wuling Woodcutter”; “follow” means “follow”; “immortal trail” means the trail of an immortal, and in the Tang Dynasty, the official offices of the Shang Shu Province were regarded as a place where immortals lived, and the officials of the Shang Shu Province were called “immortal”. “will be serving in the court, and I, a woodcutter from the land of Wuling, will follow after you all. The second line of the poem is the successor of the previous line, but “Woodcutter from Wuling” leads to “Ten years under the maple forest of Chu water”, and “tiptoeing with the immortals” is The “first time I heard the bell of Changle tonight” is an ambush, with a fine stitching and strict structure. Liu Yuxi was deported from the first year of Yongzhen (805) to the suburbs of Chang’an in the tenth year of Yuanhe (815), which is exactly ten years ago; Wuling was part of the ancient state of Chu, with many rivers, lakes and maple forests; there is a bell room in the Changle Palace in the Western Han Dynasty, and the “Changle bell” here refers to the bell in the Tang Dynasty; the word “first heard” refers to the bell in the palace; “It is worth noting that the word “first heard” does not mean that Liu Yuxi heard the bell for the first time in his life, but should be understood in relation to the third sentence, meaning that he spent “ten years in exile under the maple forest in Chu water”. “After spending ten years in exile, he starts to hear the bell in Chang’an Palace again tonight. The sound of the bell is so familiar, yet so new and rusty, what repercussions will it cause in the poet’s heart? The poet did not tell us, but some people said, “It is fortunate to hear the sound of the Changle bell again” (Tang Ruxun, “The Interpretation of Tang Poems”); others thought that this line “is the saddest part” (Xu Zeng, “And An Said Tang Poems”). I am afraid that it is difficult to summarize the poem with the word “fortunate” or “sad”. The sound of the bell could have brought him the joy of “suspecting the dream of Zhuang Zhou and feeling the return of Su Wu” (Liu Zongyuan’s “The poem sent by Dou Changshu in Longzhou to Liu 28 in honor of his return”); it could also have evoked the pleasure of “the past years, when the spirit of the group was so strong, and several times he returned to the same line. The sound of the bell will also make him relish the pain of “ten years of haggardness in the Wuling River, the crane sickness in the deep forest, the jade in the mud” (Dou Gong’s “Sending Liu Yuxi”); the sound of the bell will also touch his heart for his friends who were deported together and have passed away. Of course, Chang’an is close by, the court is right in front of him, and the sound of the bell will also raise green waves of hope in his heart. …… “Hearing the bell of Changle for the first time tonight” is neither a scenic nor a sentimental phrase, but a simple and straightforward one, implying emotions in the matter. It is a light stroke, but a thousand kinds of heart, ten thousand kinds of taste, all in it. As the saying goes, “When a poem is so wonderful, there are those who have not yet revealed their words, but whose feelings have already leapt out”.

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