Du Fu Poems: Recapture of the Regions North and South of the Yellow River – 杜甫《闻官军收河南河北》

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闻官军收河南河北

剑外[1]忽传收蓟北,

初闻涕泪满衣裳。

却看[2]妻子愁何在,

漫卷诗书喜欲狂。

白首放歌须[3]纵酒,

青春[4]作伴好还乡。

即从巴峡[5]穿巫峡,

便下襄阳向洛阳。

公元762年冬天,唐军在洛阳附近打败了叛军,收复了黄河以南的地区,第二年春天,又收复了黄河以北的地区。杜甫这时还在剑门关外,听到消息,悲喜交集,就写了这首“生平第一快诗”。这种又惊又喜的情感洪流,只用“涕泪满衣裳”五个字来以形写神。接着又用“却看妻子”和“漫卷诗书”两个动作,引出“喜欲狂”的主题。下面再用“放歌”“纵酒”来进一步写“喜欲狂”的具体表现。“青春作伴”是指春天全家结伴还乡的狂想。最后一联包含四个地名:巴峡和巫峡、襄阳和洛阳,既有句内上下对,又有句外前后对,形成了工整的对仗。文势、音调迅急犹如闪电,表现了想象的飞驰。仇兆鳌在《杜少陵集评注》中引王嗣奭的话说:“此诗句句有喜跃意,一气流注,而曲折尽情,绝无妆点,愈朴愈真,他人决不能道。”

注释:

[1]剑外:剑门关外。

[2]却看:回头看。

[3]须:应当。

[4]青春:春天青葱的景色。

[5]巴峡:推测是西陵峡。

Recapture of the Regions North and South of the Yellow River

’Tis said the Northern Gate is recaptured of late;

When the news reach my ears, my gown is wet with tears.

Staring at my wife’s face, of grief I find no trace;

Rolling up my verse books, my joy like madness looks.

Though I am white-haired, still I’d sing and drink my fill.

With verdure spring’s aglow, ’tis time we homeward go.

We shall sail all the way through Three Gorges in a day.

Going down to Xiangyang, we’ll come up to Luoyang.

 

《闻官军收河南河北》是唐代诗人杜甫的诗作。此诗作于唐代宗广德元年(763)春。当年正月史朝义自缢,安史之乱结束。杜甫听到这消息,不禁惊喜欲狂,手舞足蹈,冲口唱出这首诗。诗的前半部分写初闻喜讯的惊喜;后半部分写诗人手舞足蹈做返乡的准备,凸显了急于返回故乡的欢快之情。全诗情感奔放,处处渗透着“喜”字,痛快淋漓地抒发了作者无限喜悦兴奋的心情。因此被称为杜甫“生平第一快诗”。除第一句叙事点题外,其余各句,都是抒发诗人忽闻胜利消息之后的惊喜之情。诗人的思想感情出自胸臆,奔涌直泻。后六句都是对偶,但却明白自然像说话一般,有水到渠成之妙。

The poem “Recapture of the Regions North and South of the Yellow River” is a poem by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem was written in the spring of the first year of Emperor Daizong’s reign (763). In the first month of that year, Shi Chaoyi hanged himself, ending the An Shi Rebellion. When Du Fu heard the news, he was so surprised that he danced and sang this poem. The first half of the poem is about the surprise of hearing the good news; the second half is about the poet dancing and preparing to return to his hometown, highlighting his eagerness to return to his hometown. The whole poem is full of emotions, and the word “joy” permeates everywhere, expressing the author’s infinite joy and excitement. The poem has been called “the first fast poem of Du Fu’s life”. Except for the first line, which is a narrative point, the rest of the lines express the poet’s surprise after suddenly hearing the news of victory. The poet’s thoughts and feelings come out of his chest and pour out straight. The last six lines are all in couplets, but they are as clear and natural as speech, with a wonderful sense of water coming to fruition.

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