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HomeThe Analects of Confucius《论语·第十九章》子张篇 - The Analects of Confucius

《论语·第十九章》子张篇 – The Analects of Confucius

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子张曰:“士见危致命,见得思义,祭思敬,丧思哀,其可已矣。”

Zi Zhang said,“An intellectual is not afraid of giving up his life in face of danger. He thinks of what is right in face of a gain, of reverence in sacrifice and of grief in mourning. Such may be said to be an intellectual.

子张曰:“执德不弘,信道不笃,焉能为有?焉能为亡?”

Zi Zhang said,“If a man holds what is right only in a narrow sense and believes in right principles but not firmly, could he be said to hold and believe in what is right? Or could he not?”

子夏之门人问交于子张,子张曰:“子夏云何?”对曰:“子夏曰:‘可者与之,其不可者拒之。’”子张曰:“异乎吾所闻。君子尊贤而容众,嘉善而矜不能。我之大贤与,于人何所不容?我之不贤与,人将拒我,如之何其拒人也?”

A disciple of Zi Xia asked Zi Zhang how to make friends. Zi Zhang said,“What did Zi Xia tell you? The disciple said, “Zi Xia told us to make friends with those who are worthy and refuse those who are unworthy.” Zi Zhang said, “This is different from what I have learned. A cultured man should respect the good man and bear with others, praise the capable and help the incapable. Am I so good as not to bear with others? If I am not good enough, others will refuse to make friends with me. How could I refuse them?”

子夏曰:“日知其所亡,月无忘其所能,可谓好学也已矣。”

Zi Xia said,“If a man knows what he has not yet learned everyday and does not forget what he has learned every month, he may be said to be a lover of knowledge.”

子夏曰:“博学而笃志,切问而近思,仁在其中矣。”

Zi Xia said,“If a man studies in a wide range and with an unswerving aim, if he asks questions earnestly and reflects on closely related problems, he may be said to have good qualities in him.”

子夏曰:“小人之过也必文。”

Zi Xia said,“An uncultured man would certainly gloss his faults.”

子夏曰:“君子有三变:望之俨然,即之也温,听其言也厉。”

Zi Xia said,“An intelligentleman has three different aspects: when seen from afar, he looks grave; when approached, he looks affable; when listened to, he looks dignified.”

子夏曰:“君子信而后劳其民,未信,则以为厉己也;信而后谏,未信,则以为谤己也。”

Zi Xia said,“An intelligentleman will not order the people to toil until he is trusted, or they will think they are exploited. He will not criticize the sovereign till he wins his confidence, or the sovereign will think himself vilified.”

子夏曰:“大德不逾闲,小德出入可也。”

Zi Xia said,“In regard to a serious matter of virtue, a man should not go beyond the limit; but in regard to a trifling matter, he may not keep within limit.”

子游曰:“子夏之门人小子,当洒扫应对进退则可矣。抑末也,本之则无,如之何?”子夏闻之,曰:“噫,言游过矣!君子之道,孰先传焉?孰后倦焉?譬诸草木,区以别矣。君子之道焉可诬也?有始有卒者,其惟圣人乎!”

Zi You said,“The disciples and followers of Zi Xia are good at sprinkling water and sweeping floors, answering questions, coming forward and withdrawing, but all these are minor matters. I am afraid they are not so good in dealing with important things, Am I not right?” Hearing of this remark, Zi Xia said, “Alas! Zi You is mistaken. In regard to an intelligentleman’s ways, which should be learned first? and which may be learned later? Disciples may be compared to plants and trees; they may be classified. How can an intelligentleman’s ways not be learned in order? Who could be one from the beginning to the end? Is it not the sage alone?”

子夏曰:“仕而优则学,学而优则仕。”

Zi Xia said,“An official versed in state affairs should amplify his knowledge; an intellectual well equipped with knowledge should serve the state.”

子游曰:“丧致乎哀而止。”

Zi You said,“Mourning should not exceed grief.”

子游曰:“吾友张也为难能也,然而未仁。”

Zi You said,“It is difficult to get a friend as good as Zi Zhang, still he cannot be said to be a benevolent man.”

曾子曰:“吾闻诸夫子,人未有自致者也,必也亲丧乎!”

Master Zeng said,“I have heard from our Master that no man should show his feeling to the full unless he is mourning the death of his parents.”

曾子曰:“吾闻诸夫子,孟庄子之孝也,其他可能也;其不改父之臣与父之政,是难能也。”

Master Zeng said,“I have heard from our Master that it is possible to be as good a son as Meng Zhuang Zi, but it is difficult to be as good an official as he in employing his father’s subordinates and following his father’s policy.”

孟氏使阳肤为士师,问于曾子。曾子曰:“上失其道,民散久矣。如得其情,则哀矜而勿喜!”

The chief of the Meng family appointed Yang Fu as criminal judge, and Yang Fu consulted Master Zeng. Master Zeng said, “Those above have not followed the right way for a long time, and the people do not support them. If you can find out the reason why the criminals are accused, you should feel sympathy for them instead of joy for yourself.”

子贡曰:“纣之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子恶居下流,天下之恶皆归焉。”

Master Zeng said,“King Zhou of Yin might not be so tyrannical as it was reported. That is the reason why an intelligentleman would not stay in a low place, where one would be accused of all the evils of the world.”

子贡曰:“君子之过也,如日月之食焉。过也人皆见之,更也人皆仰之。”

Master Zeng said,“The faults of an intelligentleman are like eclipses of the sun or the moon. When he does something wrong, all men can see it. When he has amended his fault, all men look up to him.”

卫公孙朝问于子贡曰:“仲尼焉学?”子贡曰:“文武之道未坠于地,在人。贤者识其大者,不贤者识其小者,莫不有文武之道焉,夫子焉不学?而亦何常师之有?”

Gongsun Chao of the State of Wei asked Zi Gong,“From whom has Confucius acquired his knowledge?” Zi Gong said, “What the Literary and Martial Kings had taught the people has not been lost on earth. Cultured men have learned to settle main matters and uncultured men to settle minor matters. There is none but has learned something from the Literary and Martial Kings. How could my Master have learned nothing? Why should he have learned from one particular master?”

叔孙武叔语大夫于朝曰:“子贡贤于仲尼。”子服景伯以告子贡,子贡曰:“譬之宫墙,赐之墙也及肩,窥见室家之好;夫子之墙数仞,不得其门而入,不见宗庙之美、百官之富。得其门者或寡矣,夫子之云不亦宜乎!”

Shu Sun Wu Shu said to an official at court,“Zi Gong is more capable than his master Confucius. Zi Fu Jing Bo told Zi Gong what he had heard. Zi Gong said, “Let us use the wall as a comparison. My wall is only as high as my shoulder, so the beauty of my house could be easily perceived from over the wall. But my Master’s wall rises many times a man’s height. If a man cannot find the door to enter the house, the beauty and magnificense of the temple and halls could not be perceived. But few could enter his house by the door. No wonder the official should have said that about my Master.”

叔孙武叔毁仲尼,子贡曰:“无以为也,仲尼不可毁也。他人之贤者,丘陵也,犹可逾也;仲尼,日月也,无得而逾焉。人虽欲自绝,其何伤于日月乎?多见其不知量也。”

Shu Sun Wu Shu spoke ill of Confucius. Zi Gong said,“It is no use doing wrong to Confucius. Other good men may be vilified, for their height like hillocks or mounds may be surpassed. But Confucius is as high as the sun and the moon. How could he be surpassed? If a man should try to harm him, it would turn to harm himself. What harm could be done to the sun and the moon? It is beyond a man’s reach.”

陈子禽谓子贡曰:“子为恭也,仲尼岂贤于子乎?”子贡曰:“君子一言以为知,一言以为不知,言不可不慎也。夫子之不可及也,犹天之不可阶而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所谓立之斯立,道之斯行,绥之斯来,动之斯和。其生也荣,其死也哀,如之何其可及也?”

Chen Zi Qin said to Zi Gong,“You are too modest. How could Confucius be superior to you?” Zi Gong said, “By one word an intelligentleman may reveal his wisdom or ignorance. So we should be careful about what we say. It is as hard to catch up with my Master as to ascend the sky by a ladder. If he were in control of a state or a great family, the people would stand when he raised them, they would follow him when he led them, they would come from afar when called on to, and they would work in harmony when taught to. Living, he was glorious; dead, he would be bewailed. How could he be equalled?”

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