yǐ guó wéi guó, yǐ tiān xià wéi tiān xià 以国为国，以天下为天下
Rule a State or a Country with Different Methods
To rule a state, use the methods for governing a state. To rule a country, use the methods for governing a country. Guanzi held that a ruler must not use the methods for governing a clan to rule a town, nor use the methods for governing a town to rule a state, nor use the methods for governing a state to rule a country. One must change one’s methods of governance according to differences in the area under one’s rule. One must broaden one’s vision and mind as the area under one’s rule expands. In modern language, the “state” could be interpreted as a country, and the “country” as the world.
To rule a town with the methods for governing a clan, the town will not be run well. To rule a state with the methods for governing a town, the state will not be run well. To rule a country with the methods for governing a state, the country will not be run well. To rule a clan, one must meet the requirements for governing a clan. To rule a town, one must meet the requirements for governing a town. To rule a state, one must meet the requirements for governing a state. To rule a country, one must meet the requirements for governing a country. One should not refuse to listen to others’ advice just because they are not members of his clan. One should not refuse to listen to the advice of people of another town just because they do not reside in the town. One should not refuse to listen to the advice of another state just because they are outsiders of the state. One should not refuse to listen to the advice of people of another country just because they are foreigners. Is not Nature impartial towards all things between heaven and earth? The sun and the moon shed light on all. This is what a ruler should do too. (Guanzi)
Running script was a writing form created by Liu Desheng from Yingchuan in the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is a variation of regular script, easy and convenient to write. Since the script sometimes resembles running water, hence the name running script. (Zhang Huaiguan: Commentary on Calligraphy)
Running script is a freer and more concise form of regular script. Later on, strokes of some characters were sometimes linked to make writing easy and simple, looking like drifting clouds and running water. The thickness of strokes of characters keeps changing, sometimes thick, and sometimes thin. It is neither regular script nor cursive script. The form of each character is neither square nor round. It is a quickly-written calligraphic form based on regular script and official script. (Song Cao: Comments on Different Styles of Script)