因革 – Chinese philosophy and culture

0
162
Listen to this article

yīngé 因革

Inheritance and Innovation

既有所继承又有所创革。“因”是继承、沿袭,“革”是革新、改变。这一思想可溯源到孔子(前551—前479)。在孔子看来,夏商周三代礼制都是在前代基础上根据当时的历史条件有所损益的。所谓“损益”就蕴含了因革的观念。汉代扬雄(前53—公元18)对“因革”作了比较系统的阐发。这一思想后来被南朝刘勰(465?—520)用于文论,进而衍生出“通变”概念。“因革”“通变”体现的都是继承与创新的对立统一,强调基于历史与传统的变化,在继承前人经验、成果的基础上进行创新,既不是泥古不化,也不是追新逐异。不仅是文艺创作,其他如学术发展乃至国家治理,皆同此理。

This term highlights the relationship between inheritance and innovation. Yin (因) implies inheritance or adoption, whereas ge (革) means reform or innovation. The whole notion can be traced back to Confucius (551-479 BC). In his view, the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties had all modified their respective codes of etiquette in accordance with their own circumstances and on the basis of a previous era’s established rules. “Modified” here implies the idea of innovation grounded in inheritance. Yang Xiong (53 BC-AD 18) of the Han Dynasty expounded this idea more systematically. This concept was later used by Liu Xie (465?-520) of the Southern Dynasties in literary criticism, giving rise to the notion of “continuity and change.” All these ideas reflect a unity of opposites, stressing constant change in history and tradition, favoring innovation grounded in past experience and achievements, as well as avoiding either unquestioning adherence to convention or blind pursuit of novelty. Besides literary and artistic creation, the concept above is also applicable to academic research and even the governance of a country.

引例 Citations:

◎子曰:“殷因于夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因于殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世可知也。”(《论语·为政》)

(孔子说:“殷商沿袭夏朝的礼仪制度,所废除或所增加的,是可以知道的;周朝沿袭殷商的礼仪制度,所废除或所增加的,也是可以知道的。那么,假定有继承周朝而当政的人,就是以后一百代,也是可以预先知道的。”)

Confucius said: “The Shang Dynasty inherited the Xia Dynasty’s codes of etiquette with abridgements and additions, which can be known. The Zhou Dynasty followed the Shang’s codes of etiquette with abridgements and additions, which can also be known. Therefore, if there should be a successor to the Zhou Dynasty, even a hundred generations from now, its codes of etiquette could be foretold.” (The Analects)

◎夫道有因有循,有革有化。因而循之,与道神之;革而化之,与时宜之。故因而能革,天道乃得;革而能因,天道乃驯。……故知因而不知革,物失其则;知革而不知因,物失其均。(扬雄《太玄·玄莹》)

(道的运行法则既有继承又有变革。只有懂得继承,才能穷尽道的神奇;只有懂得变革,才能与当世合宜。所以懂得有继承又有变革,才能领悟道的运行法则;懂得有变革又有继承,道的运行法则才能为人所用。……所以只懂得继承不懂得变革,就不能深刻把握万物的普遍法则;只懂得变革不懂得继承,就不能深刻把握万物之间的平衡规律。)

The operation of Dao involves inheritance and continuity, and innovation and change. Only through inheritance and continuity can we fully explore the mystery of Dao. Only through innovation and change can we meet the needs of our times. Thus, respecting tradition while pursuing innovation helps us understand the laws of Dao, and pursuing innovation while respecting tradition helps us apply the laws of Dao… Therefore, if we overemphasize tradition to the neglect of innovation, we will fail to fully understand universal laws; if we focus on innovation at the expense of tradition, we will fail to master the rules of equilibrium. (Yang Xiong: Supreme Mystery)

◎古来辞人,异代接武,莫不参(sān)伍以相变,因革以为功。物色尽而情有余者,晓会通也。(刘勰《文心雕龙·物色》)

(自古以来的文人作家,历代前后相继,无不靠着错综变化、有继承又有革新而收到成效。景物有穷尽而情思写不尽,就是因为他们懂得融会和变通。)

Ever since ancient times, writers from generation to generation have made remarkable achievements, through inheritance, change, and innovation, in accordance with circumstances. Scenes have limits, but human feelings linger on due to our ability to integrate and accommodate. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

Rate this post

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here