山水诗 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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shānshuǐshī 山水诗

Landscape Poetry

一种以描写山水名胜为主要题材的诗歌流派。主要摹写自然山川的秀美壮丽并借以抒发闲情逸致,特点是写景状物逼真细致,语言表达富丽清新。东晋时期,南渡的士大夫在自然山水中寻求精神抚慰和解脱,激发了山水诗创作的灵感。其开创者是晋末宋初的大诗人谢灵运,他把自然美景引入诗歌创作,将诗歌从枯燥乏味的玄理中解放出来,后经谢朓(tiǎo)、何逊、阴铿等人的创作实践而逐步成为诗歌史上的一个重要诗派。到唐代特别是盛唐时期,山水诗的创作更是蔚为大观,涌现出王维、孟浩然等著名山水诗人,中唐时期的刘长卿韦应物、柳宗元等人的创作也有特色。山水诗开启了新的诗歌风貌,标志着一种新的审美观念的产生。

Landscape poetry, as the name suggests, describes the beauty and charm of natural scenery, and landscape poets express their emotions through extolling the enchanting scenery. Landscape poetry is characterized by vivid description of sights with rich and refreshing language. During the Eastern Jin Dynasty, scholars who had fled war-torn homes in the north sought solace and escape in nature in the south, and this found expression in poetic description of mountain and river scenes. Xie Lingyun, a great poet of the late Eastern Jin and early Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties, created this poetic style. He introduced the depiction of natural beauty into poetry writing, freeing poetry from bland and insipid moral preaching. Further developed by Xie Tiao, He Xun, Yin Keng, and others, landscape poetry became an important literary school. It gained prominence in the Tang Dynasty, especially in the prime of Tang, during which such landscape poets like Wang Wei and Meng Haoran distinguished themselves. Mid-Tang poets including Liu Changqing, Wei Yingwu, and Liu Zongyuan also became famous for writing landscape poems. This gave rise to a new form of expression in poetry and a new trend of aesthetic appreciation.

引例 Citation:

◎宋初文咏,体有因革。庄老告退,而山水方滋;俪采百字之偶,争价一句之奇,情必极貌以写物,辞必穷力而追新,此近世之所竞也。(刘勰《文心雕龙·明诗》)

(南朝宋初期的诗文,风格上有继承有变革,表现老庄思想的玄言诗退出诗坛,而山水诗正在崛起;文人用数百字的骈偶堆砌辞藻,为了某一句的新奇而攀比争胜,描绘外物务求穷形极胜,遣词造句必定竭力追求新异,这就是近代人们所竞相追逐的目标。)

The literature and poetry of the early Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties saw some changing trend: metaphysical poetry implicating Laozi and Zhuangzi’s thoughts declined and landscape poetry gained in popularity. Poets sometimes used a few hundred words of parallel prose just to describe a scene, or competed with each other in writing an unusual line. In describing scenes, they tried to depict every detail; in composing a literary work, they racked their brains to achieve what is unusual. This has become the current trend in literary writing. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

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