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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy熊伯齐 行书:许浑《秋日赴阙题潼关驿楼》

熊伯齐 行书:许浑《秋日赴阙题潼关驿楼》

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熊伯齐 行书:许浑《秋日赴阙题潼关驿楼》


【释文】红叶晚萧萧,长亭酒一瓢。残云归太华,疏雨过中条。树色随关迥,河声入海遥。帝乡明月到,犹自梦渔樵。

【款识】许浑诗,伯齐。

【注释】阙:指长安;潼关,在今陕西省潼关县。太华:太华山,即西岳华山,在今陕西省华阴县。中条:中条山,在今山西省永济县东南。

【简析】

潼关,在今陕西省潼关县境内,当陕西、山西、河南三省要冲,是从洛阳进入长安必经的咽喉重镇,形势险要,景色动人。历代诗人路经此地,往往要题诗纪胜。直到清末,谭嗣同还写下他那“河流大野犹嫌束,山入潼关不解平”的名句。可知它在诗人们心目中的位置了。

许浑从故乡润州丹阳(今属江苏)第一次到长安去,途经潼关,也为其山川形势和自然景色所深深吸引,兴会淋漓,挥笔写下了这首“高华雄浑”(清代吴汝纶语)的诗作。

开头两句,作者先勾勒出一幅秋日行旅图,把读者引入一个秋浓似酒、旅况萧瑟的境界。“红叶晚萧萧”,用写景透露人物一缕缕悲凉的意绪;“长亭酒一瓢”,用叙事传出客子旅途况味,用笔干净利落。此诗一本题作《行次潼关,逢魏扶东归》。这个背景材料,可以帮助我们了解诗人何以在长亭送别、借瓢酒消愁的原委。

然而诗人没有久久沉湎在离愁别苦之中。中间四句笔势陡转,大笔勾画四周景色,雄浑苍茫,全然是潼关的典型风物。骋目远望,南面是主峰高耸的西岳华山;北面,隔着黄河,又可见连绵苍莽的中条山。残云归岫,意味着天将放晴;疏雨乍过,给人一种清新之感。从写景看,诗人拿“残云”再加“归”字来点染华山,又拿“疏雨”再加“过”字来烘托中条山,这样,太华和中条就不是死景而是活景,因为其中有动势──在浩茫无际的沉静中显出了一抹飞动的意趣。

诗人把目光略收回来,就又看见苍苍树色,随关城一路远去。关外便是黄河,它从北面奔涌而来,在潼关外头猛地一转,径向三门峡冲去,翻滚的河水咆哮着流入渤海。“河声”后续一“遥”字,传出诗人站在高处远望倾听的神情。眼见树色苍苍,耳听河声汹汹,真绘声绘色,给人耳闻目睹的真实感觉。

这里,诗人连用四句景句,安排得如巨鳌的四足,缺一不可,丝毫没有臃肿杂乱、使人生厌之感。三、四两句,又见其另作《秋霁潼关驿亭》诗颔联,完全相同,可知是诗人偏爱的得意之笔。

“帝乡明日到,犹自梦渔樵”。照理说,离长安不过一天路程,作为入京的旅客,总该想着到长安后便要如何如何,满头满脑盘绕“帝乡”去打转子了。可是许浑却出人意外地说:“我仍然梦着故乡的渔樵生活呢!”含蓄表白了自己并非专为追求名利而来。这样结束,委婉得体,优游不迫,是颇显出自己身分的。

另欣赏:张海


张海 行书:许浑《秋日赴阙题潼关驿楼》


【款识】许浑诗,乙酉年张海。

【Simple Translation】

Tongguan, in present-day Tongguan County, Shaanxi Province, is a key point of Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan Provinces, and is a key town that must be crossed from Luoyang to Chang’an, with a dangerous situation and beautiful scenery. Poets of all ages often inscribed poems to record the victory when passing through this place. Until the end of the Qing Dynasty, Tan Sitong wrote his famous line “The river is too big for the wilderness, and the mountain is too flat for the Tongguan Pass”. You can see its place in the hearts of poets.

When Xu Hun first went to Chang’an from his hometown of Danyang in Runzhou (now part of Jiangsu Province), he passed through the Tongguan Pass and was so impressed by the landscape and natural scenery that he wrote this poem, which is “high and majestic” (in the words of Wu Rulun of the Qing Dynasty).

In the first two lines, the author first sketches a picture of autumn travel, introducing the reader to a realm where autumn is as thick as wine and travel conditions are sluggish. In the first two lines, the author first outlines a picture of an autumn journey, introducing the reader to a situation where autumn is as thick as wine and the travel conditions are sluggish. “The red leaves are sluggish at night” reveals a wisp of sadness in the scene; “A scoop of wine in a long pavilion” conveys the taste of the traveler’s journey in a narrative. This poem was originally titled “When I came to Tongguan, I met Wei Fu returning from the east”. This background material can help us understand the reason why the poet sent off his farewell at the long pavilion and used a ladle of wine to dispel his sorrow.

However, the poet does not dwell on the sorrow of parting for long. In the middle four stanzas, the poem takes a steep turn, painting the surrounding scenery with a majestic and pale brush, all typical of the scenery of Tongguan. In the south, the main peak of Mount Huashan is towering; in the north, across the Yellow River, we can see the continuous and reckless Zhongtiao Mountain. The remaining clouds are returning to the mountains, which means the sky will clear up; the sparse rain is passing, giving people a sense of freshness. From the scenery, the poet adds the word “return” and “clouds” to color Mount Hua. “In this way, Taihua and Zhongjiao are not dead scenes but living scenes, for there is a dynamic momentum in them – a touch of flying interest in the vast and endless silence.

When the poet withdrew his eyes slightly, he saw the pale trees again, following the city all the way to the far end. The Yellow River, which rushes in from the north, makes a sharp turn outside the Tongguan Pass and rushes in the direction of Sanmenxia, where the tumbling water roars into the Bohai Sea. The word “remote” follows “the sound of the river”, which conveys the poet’s expression as he stands at a high place, looking and listening from afar. The trees are pale in color and the river is raging in the ears.

Here, the poet uses four scenic sentences in a row, arranged like the four legs of a giant oar, without any sense of being bloated and cluttered, making people bored. The third and fourth stanzas, which are identical to the jaws of his other poem “Autumnal Clearance at the Tongguan Post Pavilion,” can be seen as the poet’s favorite strokes.

“The emperor’s hometown will arrive tomorrow, and I am still dreaming of fishing and woodcutting”. As a traveler entering the capital, he should be thinking about how he will arrive in Chang’an, and he should be thinking about the “imperial hometown” to play rotor. However, Xu Hun unexpectedly said, “I am still dreaming of the life of a fisherman and woodcutter in my hometown. He implicitly confesses that he is not here only for the pursuit of fame and fortune. This way, the euphemism is decent, and the leisure is not compulsive, which is quite revealing of one’s identity.

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