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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy聂成文 草书:李白《山中与幽人对酌》

聂成文 草书:李白《山中与幽人对酌》

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聂成文 草书:李白《山中与幽人对酌》


【释文】两人对酌山花开,一杯一杯复一杯。我醉欲眠卿且去,明朝有意抱琴来。

【款识】李白诗。聂成文。

【简析】

  李白饮酒诗特多兴会淋漓之作。此诗开篇就写当筵情景。“山中”,对李白来说,是“别有天地非人间”的;盛开的“山花”更增添了环境的幽美,而且眼前不是“独酌无相亲”,而是“两人对酌”,对酌者又是意气相投的“幽人”(隐居的高士)。此情此境,事事称心如意,于是乎“一杯一杯复一杯”地开怀畅饮了。次句接连重复三次“一杯”,不但极写饮酒之多,而且极写快意之至。读者仿佛看到那痛饮狂歌的情景,听到“将进酒,君莫停”(《将进酒》)那样兴高采烈的劝酒的声音。由于贪杯,诗人许是酩酊大醉了,玉山将崩,于是打发朋友先走。“我醉欲眠卿且去”,话很直率,却活画出饮者酒酣耳热的情态,也表现出对酌的双方是“忘形到尔汝”的知交。尽管颓然醉倒,诗人还余兴未尽,还不忘招呼朋友“明朝有意抱琴来”呢。此诗表现了一种超凡脱俗的狂士与“幽人”间的感情,诗中那种随心所欲、恣情纵饮的神情,挥之即去、招则须来的声口,不拘礼节、自由随便的态度,在读者面前展现出一个高度个性化的艺术形象。

  诗的艺术表现也有独特之处。盛唐绝句已经律化,且多含蓄不露、回环婉曲之作,与古诗歌行全然不同。而此诗却不就声律,又词气飞扬,一开始就有一往无前不可羁勒之势,纯是歌行作风。惟其如此,才将那种极快意之情表达得酣畅淋漓。这与通常的绝句不同,但它又不违乎绝句艺术的法则,即虽豪放却非一味发露,仍有波澜,有曲折,或者说直中有曲意。诗前二句极写痛饮之际,三句忽然一转说到醉。从两人对酌到请卿自便,是诗情的一顿宕;在遣“卿且去”之际,末句又婉订后约,相邀改日再饮,又是一顿宕。如此便造成擒纵之致,所以能于写真率的举止谈吐中,将一种深情曲曲表达出来,自然有味。此诗直在全写眼前景口头语,曲在内含的情意和心思,既有信口而出、率然天真的妙处,又不一泻无余,故能令人玩味,令人神远。

  此诗的语言特点,在口语化的同时不失其为经过提炼的文学语言,隽永有味。如“我醉欲眠卿且去”二句明白如话,却是化用一个故实。《宋书·隐逸传》:“(陶)潜不解音声,而畜素琴一张,无弦,每有酒适,辄抚弄以寄其意。贵贱造之者,有酒辄设。潜若先醉,便语客:‘我醉欲眠,卿可去’,其真率如此。”此诗第三句几乎用陶潜的原话,正表现出一种真率脱略的风度。而四句的“抱琴来”,也显然不是着意于声乐的享受,而重在“抚弄以寄其意”、以尽其兴,这从其出典可以会出。

【Simple Translation】

  Li Bai’s poems on drinking wine are particularly interesting. This poem begins with the scene of the feast. For Li Bai, “in the mountains” is “a world other than earth”; the blossoming “mountain flowers” add to the beauty of the setting, and the scene is not “alone without family” but “two people drinking together”. The flowers in full bloom add to the beauty of the setting, and instead of “drinking alone with no relatives”, “two people are drinking together”, and the people who are drinking with each other are the “secluded people” (the reclusive nobleman). In this situation, everything is as it should be, so we drink happily “one cup after another”. The next line repeats “a cup” three times, not only to write about the amount of wine drunk, but also to write about the pleasure. The reader seems to see the scene of drinking and singing, and hears the exuberant voice of persuading the poet to drink, as in “The wine will be drunk, and the gentleman will not stop” (“The wine will be drunk”). The poet was so drunk that he sent his friend away first. The poet’s words, “I am drunk and want to sleep, and the poet is leaving”, are very straightforward, but they paint a vivid picture of the drunkenness of the drinkers, and show that the two parties are friends who have “forgotten their forms to you”. Despite the fact that the poet has fallen into a drunken stupor, the poet has not forgotten to greet his friend with “the intention of holding the qin tomorrow”. The poem expresses the feelings between a maniac and a “mystic”, and the poem shows a highly personalized artistic image in front of the reader, with its casual and unrestrained look, the voice and mouth that wavers and beckons, and the unconventional and casual attitude.

  The artistic expression of the poem is also unique. The Sheng Tang stanzas are already rhythmic, and most of them are subtle, unobtrusive and euphonious, which are completely different from the ancient poems and songs. This poem, however, is not rhythmic, and the words are soaring, with an unstoppable momentum at the beginning, purely in the style of a song line. The poem is purely in the style of a song and line, and it is only in this way that the feeling of great pleasure is expressed. This is different from the usual stanzas, but it does not violate the rules of stanza art, that is, although bold, it is not just expressive, there are still waves and twists, or there are twists in the straight. The first two lines of the poem are about drinking, but the third line suddenly turns to drunkenness. From the two of them drinking together to asking Qing to make himself comfortable, it is a downward spiral of the poem; while sending “Qing and go”, the last line politely makes a later appointment and invites them to drink again another day, another downward spiral. The poem is a natural way to express deep feelings in a realistic manner. The poem is straightforward in the sense that it is all about the verbal language in the foreground, but it is also about the feelings and thoughts contained within.

  The language of this poem is characterized by its colloquialism while remaining a refined literary language, which is timeless and tasty. For example, the lines “I am drunk and want to sleep, and you are going away” are as clear as words, but they are the use of a story. Song Shu – Yin Yi biography: “(Tao) Qian does not understand the sound, but the animal a vegetarian qin, no strings, every wine suitable, always stroking to send its intention. The noble and lowly people who made it, there is always wine set. Qian if first drunk, they will say the guests: ‘I want to sleep drunk, you can go’, its true rate so.” The third line of this poem almost uses Tao Qian’s original words, which shows a kind of genuine and off-beat style. The fourth line of the poem, “I came to hold the qin”, is obviously not focused on the enjoyment of music, but on “fiddling with it to send its intention” and to enjoy it, which can be seen from its allusions.

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