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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy赵冷月 行书:王建《雨过山村》~ Tang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy

赵冷月 行书:王建《雨过山村》~ Tang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy

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赵冷月 行书:王建《雨过山村》


【释文】雨里鸡鸣一两家,竹溪村路板桥斜。妇姑相唤浴蚕去,闲看中庭栀子花。

【款识】王建雨过山村一首。存福同志正之,甲子新秋,赵冷月。

【简析】

  这首山水田园诗,富有诗情画意,又充满劳动生活的气息,颇值得称道。

  “雨里鸡鸣一两家”。诗的开头就大有山村风味。这首先与“鸡鸣”有关,“鸡鸣桑树颠”乃村居特征之一。在雨天,晦明交替似的天色,会诱得“鸡鸣不已”。但倘若是平原大坝,村落一般不会很小,一鸡打鸣会引来群鸡合唱。山村就不同了,地形使得居民点分散,即使成村,人户也不会多。“鸡鸣一两家”,恰好写出山村的特殊风味。

  “竹溪村路板桥斜”。如果说首句已显出山村之“幽”,那么,次句就由曲径通幽的过程描写,显出山居的“深”来,并让读者随诗句的向导,体验了山行的趣味。在霏霏小雨中沿着斗折蛇行的小路一边走,一边听那萧萧竹韵,潺潺溪声,该有多称心。不觉来到一座小桥跟前。这是木板搭成的“板桥”。山民尚简,溪沟不大,原不必张扬,而从美的角度看,这一座板桥设在竹溪村路间,这竹溪村路配上一座板桥,却是天然和谐的景致。

  “雨过山村”四字,至此全都有了。诗人转而写到农事:“妇姑相唤浴蚕去”。“浴蚕”,指古时用盐水选蚕种。据《周礼》“禁原蚕”注引《蚕书》:“蚕为龙精,月值大火(二月)则浴其种。”于此可见这是在仲春时分。在这淳朴的山村里,妇姑相唤而行,显得多么亲切,作为同一家庭的成员,关系多么和睦,她们彼此招呼,似乎不肯落在他家之后。“相唤浴蚕”的时节,也必有“相唤牛耕”之事,只举一端,不难概见其余。那优美的雨景中添一对“妇姑”,似比着一双兄弟更有诗意。

  田家少闲月,冒雨浴蚕,就把倍忙时节的农家气氛表现得更加够味。但诗人存心要锦上添花,挥洒妙笔写下最后一句:“闲着中庭栀子花”。事实上就是没有一个人“闲着”,但他偏不正面说,却要从背面、侧面落笔。用“闲”衬忙,兴味尤饶。一位西方诗评家说,徒手从金字塔上挖下一块石头,并不比从杰作中抽换某个单词更困难。这里的“闲”,正是这样的字,它不仅是全句也是全篇之“眼”,一经安放就断不可移易。同时诗人做入“栀子花”,又丰富了诗意。雨浥栀子冉冉香,意象够美的。此外,须知此花一名“同心花”,诗中向来用作爱之象征,故少女少妇很喜采撷这种素色的花朵。此诗写栀子花无人采,主要在于表明春深农忙,似无关“同心”之意。但这恰从另一面说明,农忙时节没有谈情说爱的“闲”功夫,所以那花的这层意义便给忘记了。这含蓄不发的结尾,实在妙机横溢,摇曳生姿。

  全诗处处扣住山村特色,融入劳动生活情事,从景写到人,从人写到境,运用新鲜活泼的语言,新鲜生动的意象,传出浓郁的乡土气息。可谓“心思之巧,辞句之秀,最易启人聪颖”(《唐诗别裁》卷八评张王乐府语)了。

【Simple Translation】

  This idyllic poem in the landscape is poetic and full of the atmosphere of working life, which is quite praiseworthy.

  ”A chicken crows in the rain”. The beginning of the poem has the flavor of a mountain village. This is first of all related to the “rooster crowing”, which is one of the characteristics of village houses. On a rainy day, the alternating brightness of the sky will induce the “rooster to crow”. However, if it is a plain dam, the village is usually not small, and a chicken crowing will lead to a chorus of chickens. Mountain villages are different, as the terrain makes the settlements scattered, and even if they become villages, there are not many people and households. The “one or two chickens crowing” aptly describes the special flavor of mountain villages.

  ”The road to the village of Bamboo Creek slopes down to the boardwalk. If the first line already shows the “seclusion” of the mountain village, then the second line is a description of the process of the winding path, showing the “depth” of the mountain residence and allowing the reader to follow the guide of the verse and experience the fun of mountain walking. In the drizzle, while walking along the path, listening to the rhythm of the bamboo and the sound of the gurgling stream, how satisfying it is. I did not realize that I came to a small bridge. This is a wooden board built “board bridge”. The mountain people are still simple, the ditch is not large, the original need not show, and from the point of view of beauty, this one board bridge is located between the village of bamboo stream road, the village of bamboo stream road with a board bridge, is a natural and harmonious scenery.

  ”Rain over the mountain village” four words, so far all have. The poet turns to the farming: “women and girls call each other bathing silkworms to go”. “Bathing silkworms”, refers to the ancient use of salt water to select silkworm seeds. According to the “Rites of Zhou” “ban on the original silkworm” note quoted “silkworm book”: “silkworm for the dragon essence, the month value of the fire (February) then bath its seeds.” Here we can see that this is in the middle of spring. In this simple mountain village, women and girls walking together, how cordial, as members of the same family, how harmonious relations, they greet each other, seems to refuse to lag behind his family. In the season of “calling each other to bathe the silkworms”, there must also be “calling each other to plow the cows”, just to mention one end, it is easy to see the rest. The beautiful rain added a pair of “women and girls”, seems to be more poetic than a pair of brothers.

  The field family is less idle, the rain bathing silkworms, it is a busy time of the farming atmosphere to show more taste. But the poet is intent on adding flowers to the icing on the cake, wielding a wonderful brush to write the last sentence: “idle gardenia in the atrium”. In fact there is no one “idle”, but he prefers not to say positively, but to write from the back, side. With “idle” lined with busy, the taste of interest especially spare. A Western poetry critic said that it is no more difficult to dig a stone from the pyramid with one’s bare hands than it is to swap a word from a masterpiece. Here the “idle”, it is such a word, it is not only the whole sentence is also the whole piece of “eye”, once placed on the break can not be moved. At the same time the poet did into the “gardenia”, and enriched the poetic meaning. Rain gardenia Ran fragrant, imagery enough beautiful. In addition, know this flower a “concentric flower”, poetry has always been used as a symbol of love, so young girls young women are very happy to pick this kind of plain flower. This poem writes the gardenia flower no one to pick, mainly lies in the indication of spring deep farming busy, seems to have nothing to do with the meaning of “concentric”. But this is exactly from the other side to say, farming busy time no talk about love “leisure” work, so that the flower of this layer of meaning will be forgotten. The poem ends with a subtle and unspoken ending, which is really a wonderful opportunity to sway.

  The poem is full of characteristics of the mountain village, incorporating the labor life, writing from the scenery to the people, from the people to the situation, using fresh and lively language, fresh and vivid imagery, and conveying a strong local flavor. It can be said that “the cleverness of the mind and the beauty of the rhetoric are most likely to enlighten people” (Comment on Zhang Wang Le Fu in Volume 8 of Tang Poems).

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