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China has a long history, Chinese culture has a profound impact on Asia and the world. Here, we have collected 100 basic pieces of information about Chinese Culture and History.


01 百家思想
01 Hundred schools of thoughts

 China Culture and History

1条 孔子:儒家创始人,被称为“至圣先师”,修订六经,其言行被弟子整理为《论语》

Article 1 Confucius: the founder of Confucianism, known as “the most sage and the first teacher”, revised the six classics, and his words and deeds were sorted out as the Analects of Confucius by his disciples

2条 老子:道家创始人,代表作《道德经》

Article 2 Laozi: the founder of Taoism and his masterpiece Tao Te Ching

3条 孟子:儒家代表人物,尊称“亚圣”,著作《孟子》

Article 3 Mencius: the representative of Confucianism, known as “ the lesser sage”, wrote “Mencius”

4条 孙武:春秋时期人,被称为“兵圣”,著作《孙子兵法》是世界最早的军事著作

Article 4 Sun Tzu: he was born in the Spring and Autumn Period and was known as the “soldier sage”. His book “Military Science of Sun Zi” is the earliest military work in the world

5条 孙膑:战国时期人,著作《孙膑兵法》

Article 5 Sun Bin: he was born in the Warring States period and wrote “Military Science of Sun Bin”

6条 庄子:道家代表人物,被尊为南华真人,作品《庄子》也被称为《南华经》,其中名篇《逍遥游》《齐物论》

Article 6 Zhuang Zhou: a representative figure of Taoism, is respected as the Real Person of Nanhua. His works Chuang Tzu is also known as the Nanhua Sutra, among which the famous ones are XiaoYaoYou and QiWuLun

7条 墨子:墨家创始人,主张兼爱非攻、节俭,提出光学八条,小孔成像等

Article 7 Mozi: the founder of Mohist school, advocated non-attack and frugality, and put forward eight principles of optics and pinhole imaging

8条 荀子:儒家学派代表人物,主张“性恶论”,著作《荀子》

Article 8 Xun Kuang: the representative of the Confucian school, advocated the “theory of evil nature”, and wrote Xunzi

9条 商鞅:法家代表人物,作品《商君书》,重农抑商,严刑苛法

Article 9 Shang Yang: a representative figure of the Legalists, who wrote the book of Shang Jun, emphasized agriculture and restrained commerce and imposed strict punishments and laws

10条 韩非:法家代表人物,法、术、势结合,以法为本

Article 10 Han Fei: a representative of Legalism, combining law, technique, and power, based on law

11条 董仲舒:西汉思想家,代表作《春秋繁露》,代表观点天人感应,三纲五常

Article 11 Dong Zhongshu: a thinker of the Western Han Dynasty, his representative work “Chunqiu Fanlu” represents the views of heaven and human, the three cardinal guides, and five constant principles

12条 范缜:代表作《神灭论》,反对佛教,坚持物质第一性,系统阐述无神论的思想

Article 12 Fan Zhen: his representative work is the theory of God’s destruction, opposes Buddhism, adheres to the principle of material first, and systematically expounds the thought of atheism

13条 朱熹:南宋思想家,理学代表人物,主张存天理、灭人欲

Article 13 Zhu Xi: a thinker in the Southern Song Dynasty, a representative of Neo Confucianism, advocated the preservation of natural principles and the elimination of human desires

14条 陆九渊:南宋思想家,心学始祖,与王阳明并称“陆王心学”

Article 14 Lu Jiuyuan, a thinker of the Southern Song Dynasty and the ancestor of the theory of mind, is called “Lu Wang’s theory of mind” together with Wang Yangming

15条 王阳明:明代思想家,心学,主张致良知,知行合一

Article 15 Wang Yangming: a thinker of the Ming Dynasty, he advocated the pursuit of conscience and the unity of knowledge and practice


02 文化常识
02 Cultural Knowledge

 China Culture and History

16条 《春秋》:第一部编年体史书

Article 16 the Spring and Autumn Annals: the first annalistic style Chronicle

17条 《春秋》三传:《左传》《公羊传》《谷梁传》

Article 17 three biographies of the Spring and Autumn Annals: Zuozhuan, Gongyang Zhuan and Guliang Zhuan

18条 《晏子春秋》:第一部专记个人言行的历史散文

Article 18 Yanzi Chunqiu: the first historical prose dedicated to personal words and deeds

19条 《国语》:第一部国别体史书

Article 19 Guoyu: the first history book of national style

20条 《史记》:第一部纪传体通史,被鲁迅誉为“史家之绝唱,无韵之离骚”

Article 20 Records of the Grand Historian: the first general history of biography, which was praised by Lu Xun as “the masterpiece of historians, the Lisao without rhyme”

21条 《汉书》:班固撰写,第一部断代史

Article 21 Book of Han: written by Ban Gu, the first dynastic history

22条 前四史:《史记》、《汉书》、《后汉书》、《三国志》

Article 22 the first four histories: Records of the Grand Historian, the Book of Han, the Book of the Later Han, and Records of the Three Kingdoms

23条 《资治通鉴》:第一部编年体通史,与《史记》并称“史学双璧”

Article 23 Zizhi Tongjian: the first annalistic of general history, together with Records of the Grand Historian, is called “double jade of historiography”

24条 《诗经》:中国第一部诗歌总集

Article 24 the Classic of Poetry: the first collection of Chinese Poems

25条 《楚辞》:中国文学史上第一部浪漫主义诗歌总集

Article 25 Chu Ci: the first collection of romantic poems in the history of Chinese Literature

26条 《尔雅》:第一部词典

Article 26 Er Ya: the first dictionary of Chinese words

27条 《说文解字》:第一部字典

Article 26 Shuowen Jiezi: the first dictionary of Chinese character

28条 文章西汉两司马:司马迁、司马相如

Article 28 There were two Simas in the Western Han Dynasty: Sima Qian and Sima Xiangru

29条 《燕歌行》:现存最早的完整的文人七言诗,作者曹丕

Article 29 Yan Ge Xing: the earliest and complete seven-character poem by Cao Pi

30条 《搜神记》:古代志怪小说最高成就,东晋干宝,搜集整理

The 30th Southern Ji: the highest achievement of ancient mystery novels, collection, and collation of Eastern Jin Ganbao

31条 《世说新语》:刘义庆著,记述魏晋人物言谈轶事的笔记小说

Article 31 A New Account of the Tales of the World: written by Liu Yiqing, is a novel with notes describing the anecdotes of the characters in the Wei and Jin dynasties

32条 《文心雕龙》:刘勰著,我国第一部文艺理论专著

Article 32 Wenxin Diaolong: Liu Xie, China’s first literary theory monograph


Article 33 Tao Yuanming: named Wu Liu, who especially loves chrysanthemums, some of his works: “a tale of peach blossom”, “a farewell to my hometown” and “a home in the garden”

34条 初唐四杰:王勃、杨炯、卢照邻、骆宾王

Article 34 4 outstanding figures in the early Tang DynastyWang BoYang JiongLu Zhaolin, and Luo Binwang

35条 李白:“诗仙”,字太白,号青莲居士,作品《蜀道难》《梦游天姥吟留别》《将进酒》

Article 35 Li Bai: “ Poet Immortals”, the word is Taibai, the name is Qinglian Jushi, works “Shu Road is difficult”, “Sleepwalking Tianmu Sing farewell”, “Going to Drink”


Article 36 Du Fu, whose courtesy name was Zimei, styled himself as Shaoling Savage, was also known as “Du Gongbu”, and his poems were called “Poetry History”


Article 37 Bai Juyi: “the devil of poetry” and “the king of poetry”, with the word “Letian” and the name “Xiangshan hermit”, which is the representative works of “Song of everlasting regret” and “Pipa line”


Article 38 Wang Wei: “Poetry Buddha”, with the word Mojie, is called Wang Youcheng, a representative of the pastoral poetry school, “painting in poetry, poetry in painting”


Article 39 Meng Haoran: World-known as “Meng Xiangyang”, one of the representatives of landscape pastoral poetry, and also known as “Wang Meng” together with Wang Wei


Article 40 Cen Shen: one of the representatives of the Frontier Fortress Poetry School, his representative work is A Song of White Snow in Farewell to Field-clerk Wu Going Home

China Culture and History


Article 41 Wang Changling: one of the representatives of frontier poetry school, his representative work “crossing the frontier”


Article 42 Liu Yuxi: the word Mengde, his representative works “Loushi ming” and “Wuyi Xiang”


Article 43 Du Mu: the word Mu Zhi, also known as Fanchuan Jushi, whose representative works are “Bo Qin Huai”, “Epang Palace Ode” and “Pass by Hua Qing Palace”


Article 44 Li Shangyin: the word is Yishan, named Yuxisheng. He and Du Mu are called “Little Li Du” together. His representative works are Untitled, Jinse

45条 唐宋散文八大家:唐代韩愈、柳宗元和宋代苏轼、苏洵、苏辙、欧阳修王安石、曾巩

Article 45 eight proses of Tang and Song Dynasties: Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan of Tang Dynasty, Su ShiSu XunSu ZheOuyang XiuWang Anshi and Zeng Gong of Song Dynasty

46条 韩愈:字退之,世称韩昌黎,唐代古文运动倡导者,苏轼称其为“文起八代之衰”代表作《师说》《马说》

Article 46 Han Yu: the word “tuizhi”, known as Han Changli, was an advocator of the ancient prose movement in the Tang Dynasty. Su Shi called it “the decline of eight generations of literature”, and his representative works are About Teacher, and About Horse

47条 柳宗元:字子厚,人称“柳河东”,代表作《永州八记》《黔之驴》《小石潭记》《捕蛇者说》

Article 47 Liu Zongyuan: the word Zihou, known as “Liu Hedong”, representative works “Yongzhou Eight Notes”, “Qian Donkey”, “Little Stone Pillar”, “Snake-catcher said”

48条 苏轼:字子瞻,号东坡居士,宋词豪放派代表,代表作《赤壁赋》《江城子》《念奴娇》《水调歌头》

Article 48 Su Shi: named Zichan, known by his literary name Dongpo Jushi, the representative of the bold and unconstrained School of Song Ci, and his representative works are Chibi Fu, Jiangchengzi, Niannujiao, and Shuidiao Guetou

49条 王安石:字介甫,号半山,世人又称王荆公、临川先生,代表作《元日》《桂枝香》,被列宁成为“中国11世纪最伟大的改革家”

Article 49 Wang Anshi: with word Jiepu, or Banshan, also known as Wang Jingong, Mr. Linchuan, representative works “Yuan Ri” “Guizhi Xiang”, was called “China’s 11th century the greatest reformer” by Lenin

50条 范仲淹:字希文,世称范文正公,豪放派代表人物之一,代表作《岳阳楼记》,名句“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”

Article 50 Fan Zhongyan: with the word of Xiwen, known as Fan Wenzhenggong, is one of the representatives of the bold and unconstrained school. In his masterpiece Yueyang Tower, there is a famous saying: “worry before the world, then happiness after the world.”


Article 51 Xin Qiji, the word Youan, also known as Jiaxuan, is one of the representatives of the bold and unconstrained school. His representative works are Yongyule and Qingyu case


Article 52 Li Yu: “the emperor of Ci in ancient times”, with the name of Chongguang and the initial name of Congjia, is one of the representatives of the graceful and restrained school. His representative works are Yu Meiren and Lang Taosha


Article 53 Liu Yong: the original name is 3 changes, “where there is well water to drink, you can sing Liu Ci”, one of the representatives of the graceful school, and the representative work is Yulinling


Article 54 Qin Guan: the word Shaoyou, the name Huaihai Jushi, is one of the representatives of the graceful school, and the representative work “Queqiao Xian”


Article 55 Li Qingzhao, named Yi’an Jushi, “the most talented woman”, also known as “Ji’nan Er’an” together with Xin Qiji, is one of the representatives of the graceful school, whose masterpieces are Yi Jian Mei, Sheng Sheng man, and Zui Hua Yin

56条 元曲四大家:关汉卿、马致远、郑光祖、白朴

Article 56 4 masters of Yuanqu: Guan HanqingMa ZhiyuanZheng GuangzuBai Pu

57条 关汉卿:代表作《窦娥冤》(窦娥)、《救风尘》(赵盼儿)、《望江亭》(谭记儿)

Article 57 Guan Hanqing: his representative works The Injustice to Dou E (Dou E), Jiu FengChen (Zhao Pan’er), Wangjiang Pavilion (Tan Ji’er)

58条 马致远:代表作《汉宫秋》(王昭君、汉元帝),《青衫泪》(白居易)

Article 58 Ma Zhiyuan: representative works “Autumn in the Palace of Han Dynasty” (Wang Zhaojun, Emperor Yuan of Han Dynasty), “Tears of Green Shirts” (Bai Juyi)

59条 元曲四大悲剧:《窦娥冤》《梧桐雨》《汉宫秋》《赵氏孤儿》(纪君祥)

Article 59 4 Tragedies of Yuan Qu: The Injustice to Dou E, Wu Tong Yu, Han Gong Qiu, and Zhao’s Orphan (Ji Junxiang)

60条 汤显祖:明代剧作家,代表作“玉茗堂四梦”:《牡丹亭》(杜丽娘)、《紫钗记》(霍小玉、李益)、《邯郸记》(卢生)、《南柯记》(淳于棼)

Article 60 Tang Xianzu: The dramatist of the Ming Dynasty, whose representative works include The Peony Pavilion (Du Liniang), The Purple Hairpin (Huo Xiaoyu, Li Yi), Records of Handan (Lu Sheng), and Records of Nan Ke (Chun Yu Fen).

61条 明代四大奇书:《三国演义》《水浒传》《西游记》《金瓶梅》

Article 61 The 4 Great Books of the Ming Dynasty: Romance of the Three KingdomsWater MarginJourney to the West, and Jin Ping Mei

62条 《三国演义》:罗贯中著,以陈寿《三国志》为蓝本

Article 62 Romance of the Three Kingdoms: written by Luo Guanzhong, based on Chen Shou’s Records of thThree Kingdoms

63条 《水浒传》:施耐庵著,中国第一部用通俗口语写成的长篇小说,三十六天罡,七十二地煞,共一百单八将,取材于北宋末年的宋江起义

Article 63 Water Margin: written by Shi Naian, the first Chinese novel written in colloquial language, 36 Tiangang, and 72 Disha, with a total of 108 Generals, is based on the Song Jiang uprising in the late Northern Song Dynasty

64条 《西游记》:吴承恩著,取材于《大唐西域记》和民间传说,是中国古代第一部浪漫主义长篇神魔小说

Article 64 Journey to the West: written by Wu Chengen, based on the records of the western regions of the Tang Dynasty and folklore, it is the first romantic novel about gods and demons in ancient China

65条 《金瓶梅》:兰陵笑笑生著,“四大奇书”之首,是中国文学史上第一部由文人独立创作的长篇小说名著,对《红楼梦》影响甚深

Article 65 Jin Ping Mei, written by Lan Ling Xiaoxiao, is the first of the “four wonderful books”. It is the first famous novel in the history of Chinese literature that was independently written by literati and has a profound influence on a dream of Red Mansions

66条 《红楼梦》:前80回曹雪芹著,后40回高鹗续,中国古典小说的巅峰,“中国封建社会的百科全书”

Article 66 Dream of the Red Chamber: the first 80 chapters were written by Cao Xueqin, the last 40 chapters by Gao E, the peak of Chinese classical novels, “the Encyclopedia of Chinese feudal society”

67条 《长生殿》:清代剧作家洪升代表作,讲述唐玄宗与杨贵妃的故事

Article 67 The Palace of Eternal Life: the representative work of Hong Sheng, a dramatist of the Qing Dynasty, tells the story of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty and Yang Guifei

68条 《桃花扇》:清代剧作家孔尚任创作,主人公为李香君与侯方域,“借离合之情,写兴亡之感”

Article 68 The Peach Blossom Fan: created by Kong Shangren, a dramatist of the Qing Dynasty, the protagonists are Li Xiangjun and Hou Fangyu, who “to get the feeling of separation and reunion, to write the feeling of rising and fall.”

69条 《四库全书》:当时世界上最大的一部丛书,清乾隆皇帝组织编写,分为经、史、子、集四目

Article 69 Siku Quanshu: the largest book series in the world at that time, organized and compiled by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, it is divided into four categories: classics, history, books, and collections

70条 《聊斋志异》:蒲松龄著,古典文言短篇小说的巅峰。“写鬼写妖高人一等,刺贪刺虐入木三分”,“鬼狐有性格,笑骂成文章”

Article 70 Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio: written by Pu Songling, the peak of classical Chinese short stories. “Writing ghostwriting demon is superior to others, stab greed stab abuse wood three points”, “ghost fox has character, laugh and scold into articles”

71条 《儒林外史》:吴敬梓代表作,是我国第一部长篇讽刺小说

Article 71 Rulin Waishi: Wu Jingzi’s representative work, which is the first satirical novel in China


03 科技地理
03 Geography, science, and technology

 China Culture and History

72条 《周髀算经》:记载了勾股定理,是中国最古老的数学著作

Article 72 Zhoubi Suanjing, which records the Pythagorean theorem, is the oldest mathematical work in China

73条 《九章算术》:刘徽著,最早提出圆周率的正确算法,割圆法

Article 73 The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art: written by Liu Hui, the first book to put forward the correct algorithm of PI, method  of cutting circle

74条 祖冲之:第一个将圆周率准确值算到小数点后七位,比欧洲早近1000

Article 74 Zu Chongzhi: the first one is to calculate the accurate value of Pi to seven decimal places, nearly 1000 years earlier than that of Europe

75条 《齐民要术》:贾思勰,北朝农学家,我国现存最古老、最完整的农书

Article 75 Qimin Yaoshu: written by Jia Sixie, an agronomist in the Northern Dynasty, is the oldest and most complete agricultural book in China

76条 徐光启:《农政全书》建立了比较完整的农学体系;《泰西水法》,引入欧洲水利技术,与利玛窦合译《几何原本》

Article 76 Xu Guangqi: The Complete Book of agricultural administration has established a relatively complete system of agronomy Taixi Water Law, introducing European water conservancy technology, and translated Geometry Original Manuscript with Matteo Ricci

77条 《禹贡地域图》:裴秀著,提出了绘制地图的原则“制图六体”

Article 77 Map of Yugong Region: Written by Pei Xiu, the principle of map drawing “six bodies” was put forward.

78条 《水经注》:郦道元著,详细介绍了全国的重要河流

Article 78 Notes on the Water Classic, written by Li Daoyuan, introduces the important rivers of the country in detail

79条 《授时历》:郭守敬,比欧洲的历法早了三百多年

Article 79 Shoushi Calendar: Guo Shoujing, more than 300 years earlier than the European calendar

80条 《徐霞客游记》:徐霞客著,记述了石灰岩溶蚀地貌,比欧洲早约两个世纪

Article 80 Xu Xiake’s Travels: Written by Xu Xiake, he describes a landscape of limestone dissolution, about two centuries before Europe

81条 《梦溪笔谈》:北宋沈括著被誉为“中国科学史的里程碑”,李约瑟称沈括为“中国科学史上最卓越的人物”

Article 81 “Meng Xi Bi tan”: Shen Kuo‘s work in the Northern Song Dynasty, which is regarded as “a milestone in the history of Chinese science”. Joseph Needham called Shen Kuo “the most outstanding figure in the history of Chinese science”

82条 《天工开物》:宋应星著,“中国17世纪的工艺百科全书”

Article 82 Tiangong Kaiwu, written by Song Yingxing, “Encyclopedia of Chinese crafts in the 17th century”


04 医学
04 Medicine

China Culture and History

83条 扁鹊:望闻问切四诊法,成为中医的传统诊病法

Article 83 Bian Que: the 4 diagnostic methods of seeing, hearing, inquiring, and cutting have become the traditional diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine

84条 《黄帝内经》:战国问世,西汉编定,分《灵枢》和《素问》两部分,是我国现存最早的医学文献,提出针灸学,奠定了我国医学的理论基础

Article 84 Huangdi Neijing: it was published in the Warring States period and compiled in the Western Han Dynasty. It is divided into two parts: Lingshu and Suwen. It is the earliest existing medical literature in China. It puts forward acupuncture and moxibustion and lays the theoretical foundation of Chinese medicine

85条 《神农本草经》:东汉成书,是我国第一部完整的药物学著作

Article 85 Shennong Ben Cao Jing: Written in the Eastern Han Dynasty, is the first complete pharmacological work in China

86条 华佗: “神医”,发明麻沸散

Article 86 Hua Tuo: “magic doctor”, invented Ma Fei San (powder of anesthesia)

87条 张仲景:“医圣”,著作《伤寒杂病论》奠定了中医治疗学的基础

Article 87 Zhang Zhongjing, “medical saint”, whose book “on typhoid and miscellaneous diseases” laid the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine therapy

88条 孙思邈,“药王”,著作《千金方》

Article 88 Sun Simiao, the “king of medicine”, wrote Qian Jin Fang

89条 《唐本草》,唐高宗时修订,最早颁布的官方药典

Article 89 Materia medica of the Tang Dynasty, revised by Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, was the earliest official Pharmacopoeia

90条 元丹贡布:吐蕃医学家,编著《四部医典》被誉为藏医药百科全书

Article 90 Yuan Dan Kampot: Tibetan medical practitioner, who compiled the 4 medical scriptures, which is known as the Encyclopedia of Tibetan Medicine

91条 李时珍:编写的《本草纲目》全面地总结了16世纪以前的中国医药学,被誉为“东方医药巨典”

Article 91 Li Shizhen: The Compendium of Materia Medica compiled comprehensively summarizes Chinese medicine before the 16th century, and is known as the “Great Classic of Oriental Medicine”


05 书法绘画
05 Calligraphy and Painting


92条 书法五体:篆书、隶书、草书、楷书、行书

Article 92 5 styles of Calligraphy: seal script, official script, cursive script, regular script, and running script

93条 楷书四大家:唐朝欧阳询(欧体)、颜真卿(颜体)、柳公权(柳体)、元朝赵孟頫(赵体)

Article 93 four masters of the regular script: Ouyang Xun of Tang Dynasty (Ou style), Yan Zhenqing (Yan style), Liu Gongquan (Liu style), Zhao Mengfu of Yuan Dynasty (Zhao style)

94条 王羲之:书圣,代表作《兰亭序》、《快雪时晴帖》、《黄庭经》等,《兰亭序》被称为“天下第一行书”

Article 94 Wang Xizhi: Sage of Calligraphy, his representative works include Lan Ting Xu, Kuai Xue Shi Qing Tie, and Huang Ting Jing. Lan Ting Xu is known as the first running script in the World

95条 颜真卿:其楷书端庄雄伟,代表作《多宝塔碑》、《颜勤礼碑》;行书《祭侄稿》被称为“天下第二行书”

Article 95 Yan Zhenqing: his regular script is dignified and majestic, and his representative works are Duo Bao Ta Bei and Yan Qin Li Bei; Running script of Ji Zhi Gao is called “the second running script in the world”

96条 顾恺之:精于人像、佛像、鸟兽、山水等,代表作《女史箴图》、《洛神赋图》

Article 96 Gu Kaizhi: he is proficient in portraits of human beings, Buddhas, birds and animals, landscapes, etc, and his masterpieces are the painting of Nv Shi Zhen Tu and the painting of Luo Shen Fu

97条 阎立本:唐代画家,代表作《步辇图》、《历代帝王像》

Article 97 Yan Liben: painter of the Tang Dynasty, his representative works: walking chariots and the portraits of Emperors

98条 吴道子:唐代画家,尊称画圣,代表作《送子天王图》

Article 98 Wu Daozi: painter of the Tang Dynasty, honorably known as the saint of painting, his representative work the picture of the heavenly king giving son

99条 张择端:代表作《清明上河图》,描写了北宋都城开封的繁荣景象

Article 99: Zhang Zeduan, his representative work “Along the River During the Qingming Festival” describes the prosperity of Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

100条 文字演变历程:甲骨文—金文—大篆—小篆—隶书—草书—楷书—行书

Article 100 evolution of Chinese characters: Oracle Bone Inscriptions, inscriptions on gold, big seal characters, small seal characters, official script, cursive script, regular script, running script

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