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Chinese Cities – Shenzhen

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Shenzhen, another name 鹏城, Guangdong Province, deputy provincial cities, municipalities, large cities, the State Council approved to determine the Chinese special economic zones, the national and international economic center of the city. As of the end of 2019, the city has 9 districts with a total area of 1997.47 square kilometers, a built-up area of 927.96 square kilometers, and a permanent population of 13,438,800, an increase of 412,200 over the end of the previous year. Among them, the permanent resident population was 4,947,800, and the permanent non-resident population was 8,491,100.
Shenzhen is located in South China, southern Guangdong, and the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary. It borders Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay in the east, the Pearl River Estuary, and the Lending Ocean in the west, and is connected to Hong Kong by the Shenzhen River in the south. It is one of the four central cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area .the national logistics hub, an international integrated transport hub, international High-Tech innovation Center, China’s three major national financial centers in one of, and efforts to build socialism with Chinese characteristics in advance Demonstration area, comprehensive national science center, global ocean center city. Shenzhen has a wide range of water, land, air, and railway ports. It is the port city with the largest number of ports, the largest number of people entering and exiting, and the largest traffic volume in China.
shenzhen map
The name of Shenzhen was first seen in historical records in the eighth year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1410). The ruins were established in the early Qing Dynasty. Shenzhen was established in 1979. In 1980, it became China’s first special economic zone, a window for China’s reform and opening up, and an emerging city for immigrants. , Created the world-renowned ” Shenzhen Speed ” and was hailed as the ” Silicon Valley of China “. Shenzhen occupies an important position in China’s high-tech industries, financial services, foreign trade exports, marine transportation, and creative culture. It also shoulders the important mission of experimentation and demonstration in China’s institutional innovation and opening up.
In December 2019, it ranked third in the 2019 China City Creativity Index.
In June 2020, it was selected as one of the first batches of demonstration areas and projects for the construction of a national rule of law governed by the Central Committee for the Rule of Law.
shenzhen night view

Geographical environment

position

Shenzhen is a coastal city in southern China, adjacent to Hong Kong. It is located south of the Tropic of Cancer, between 113°43′ to 114°38′ east longitude and 22°24′ to 22°52′ north latitude. It is located in southern Guangdong Province, on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary, with Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay in the east; Pearl River Estuary and Lingding Ocean in the west; Shenzhen River connected to Hong Kong in the south; Dongguan and Huizhou in the north. The city covers an area of 1997.47 square kilometers.

topography

The terrain of Shenzhen is high in the southeast and low in the northwest. Most of it is low hilly land with gentle terraces; the west is the coastal plain. The highest mountain in the territory is Wutong Mountain, 943.7 meters above sea level.

climate

Shenzhen is located in the south-central coastal area of Guangdong Province, northeast of the estuary of the Pearl River, at a low latitude, and belongs to a subtropical oceanic climate. Due to the influence of the monsoon, the southeast wind prevails in summer, with low monsoon pressure, tropical cyclones, high temperature and rain; the northeast monsoon prevails in the rest of the season, with relatively dry weather and mild climate, with an average annual temperature of 22.4°C and a maximum temperature of 38.7°C (1980 July 10), the lowest temperature was 0.2℃ (February 11, 1957). There is plenty of rainfall. The rainy season is from April to September each year. The annual rainfall is 1933.3 mm, with the highest annual rainfall record of 2662 mm (1957) and the lowest annual rainfall record of 913 mm (1963). The sunshine time is long, the average annual sunshine time is 2120.5 hours, and the annual solar radiation is 5225 megajoules/square meter. The prevailing wind direction throughout the year is the easterly southeast wind, which is affected by tropical cyclones (typhoons) 4 to 5 times a year on average.
The cold air that affects Shenzhen in the spring begins to weaken, and the weather is changeable, often with “warm and cold” weather. In the early spring, there is still a strong influence of cold air. In a few years, cold wave weather can still occur in late February, and there is less rain, and most years will experience varying degrees of drought. In summer, under the stable control of the subtropical high pressure, hot weather often occurs, which is the period of extreme maximum temperature. At the same time, summer is also the season with the most abundant precipitation in Shenzhen. The precipitation in Shenzhen varies greatly from region to region, and it is prone to local floods and short-term thunderstorms. Autumn is a period of little rain and aridity in Shenzhen, and there are more sunny and good weather in autumn. Due to low rainfall and large evaporation, autumn droughts are prone to occur and develop rapidly. Shenzhen has autumn droughts of varying degrees almost every year. Winter is the coldest season in Shenzhen. It is often under the control of dry and cold air currents. The temperature is the lowest throughout the year and precipitation is scarce.
shenzhen hydrology

hydrology

Shenzhen is surrounded by mountains and the sea. There are more than 160 large and small rivers, which belong to the Dongjiang, Gulf and Pearl River estuary water systems, but the rain collection area and flow are not large. There are five rivers with a drainage area greater than 100 square kilometers, Shenzhen River, Maozhou River, Longgang River, Guanlan River and Pingshan River.
As of the end of 2017, Shenzhen had 24 reservoirs, including 9 medium-sized reservoirs, with a total storage capacity of 525 million cubic meters. The Shenzhen Reservoir, located in the east of the urban area, has a total storage capacity of more than 40 million cubic meters. It is the main source of water for residents in Shenzhen and Hong Kong.
The total amount of groundwater resources is 650 million cubic meters per year, and the annual exploitable resources are 100 million cubic meters. The total amount of natural fresh water resources is 1.93 billion cubic meters, and the per capita water resources are only 500 cubic meters, which is about 1/3 and 1/4 of that of the whole country and Guangdong Province.
Natural resources
As of the end of 2017, Shenzhen had 2446.7 hectares of arable land resources, 9946.7 hectares of fruit cultivation, and 79,700 hectares of forestry land. It is rich in agricultural and sideline products such as Longgang chicken, Nantou litchi, Nanshan peach, Shiyan sand pear, kumquat orange and Longhua persimmon. Shajing oysters are another specialty of Shenzhen. National protected wild animals that inhabit and thrive include tiger frogs, pythons, macaques, big civets, leopards and pangolins; 5 species of amphibians, 23 species of reptiles, 30 species of birds, and beasts with greater economic value 33 kinds.
shenzhen city scenery

Population

Historically, Shenzhen’s predecessor, Bao’an County (Xin’an County), originally had four ethnic minorities, Hakka, Cantonese, Fu Lao and Dan families, most of which were Hakkas. When did the earliest Hakkas in Shenzhen begin? There is no detailed and verifiable information yet, but a large number of Hakkas entered Shenzhen during the Kangxi and Qianlong periods of the Qing Dynasty after the “movement event” occurred.
The Cantonese in Shenzhen moved to Shenzhen from the east at the turn of the Song and Yuan dynasties, mainly living in Luohu, Futian, Nanshan, Baoan and other areas. Cantonese people live scattered in Longgang. Pinghu is the most concentrated street of Cantonese in Longgang District. Among the 12 communities in its jurisdiction, 2 speak Hakka and 10 speak Pinghu Weitou dialect. After the Tang Anshi Rebellion, disturbances followed, and Lingnan became a “safe haven” in every war. During this process, Zhuji Alley in Nanxiong, Guangdong became an important transit point for the southern migration, and the settlement of Cantonese in Pinghu is also a historical necessity.

shenzhen people

 

From the 18th year of Shunzhi (1661) to the 7th year of Kangxi (1668), the boundary was moved. “Increases were not allowed to go to the sea” and “No sails were allowed to enter.” The coastal residents were moved inward by 50 li and then 30 li. Xin’an County was restored in the eighth year of Kangxi (1669), and other areas were restored in the 23rd year of Kangxi (1684). Very few original inhabitants returned, so Hakka from eastern Guangdong and other places were recruited to naturalize Xin’an County. Inspired by preferential recruitment policies, Hakkas in Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi and Dongjiang river basins, especially those in Meizhou and Huizhou, have rushed to coastal Shenzhen, setting off a new upsurge of restoring production, reclaiming wasteland, and rebuilding their homes.
In 2018, Shenzhen’s floating population increased to 498,300.
As of the end of 2019, Shenzhen had a permanent population of 13,438,800, an increase of 412,200 over the end of the previous year. Among them, the permanent resident population was 4,947,800, an increase of 8.8%, accounting for 36.8% of the permanent population; the permanent non-resident population was 8,491,100, an increase of 0.1%, accounting for 63.2%.
Since the reform and opening up, Shenzhen has grown from a single ethnic group to a population of 55 ethnic minorities in 2002. It is the second-largest city in the country with 56 ethnic groups after Beijing. It is listed as one of the country’s 12 minorities. One of the pilot cities for the construction of a service management system for the ethnic floating population. In 2013, the city’s ethnic minority population was 1.09 million, surpassing Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, becoming the country’s largest city with ethnic minority populations. During the year, there were 12 ethnic minorities with more than 10,000 people in Shenzhen. Among the permanent residents, the most ethnic minority population is the Zhuang, followed by Tujia, Miao, Dong, Yao, Hui, Buyi, Manchu, Yi, Korean, Mongolian Tribe, Li tribe.
The reform and opening policy combined with the special geographical environment has created the openness, tolerance, and innovation of Shenzhen’s culture, which has become a new immigration city and formed a unique immigration culture. In 2002, Shenzhen had 55 ethnic minorities, making it the second-largest city in the country with 56 ethnic minorities after Beijing.

Education

As of the end of 2019, Shenzhen had a total of 2,642 schools of all levels and types, an increase of 91 over the previous year; 514,900 graduates, 639,700 enrollment, and 2,232,400 students were enrolled, an increase of 2.9%, 0.5%, and respectively. 5.1%. At the end of the year, there were 1836 kindergartens in the city, an increase of 65; there were 545 thousand children in kindergartens, an increase of 4.0%.

There are 340 primary schools, a decrease of 4; the number of students at school is 1.069 million, an increase of 4.0%. There are 417 ordinary middle schools, an increase of 27; the number of students at school is 477,400, an increase of 6.6%. There are 13 ordinary colleges and universities; there are 113,200 students in school, an increase of 9.0%. In the whole year, the city’s general undergraduate and junior college enrolled 30,000 students, 92,200 students, and 21,300 graduates; adult undergraduate and junior college enrolled 15,000 students, 33,700 students, and 6,900 graduates; ordinary colleges and universities graduate education enrollment 0.81 There are 21,000 postgraduates and 4,700 graduates.
shenzhen university

undergraduate school

category
School name
Founding time
types of school
Competent authority
 Undergraduate School
Shenzhen University
1983
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province
Southern University of Science and Technology
the year 2011
Science and technology
Guangdong Province
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen)
The year 2014
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province
Shenzhen Institute of Tourism, Jinan University
the year 1996
Comprehensive
Jinan University
The year 2014
Science and technology
Harbin Institute of Technology
Shenzhen Beili Moscow University
2015
Comprehensive
Guangdong Provincial Department of Education
Sun Yat-sen University Shenzhen Campus
2015
Comprehensive
Sun Yat-Sen University
Shenzhen University of Technology
2016
Science and technology
Guangdong Province
Graduate School
Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School
2001
Comprehensive
Peking University
Tsinghua University Shenzhen Graduate School
2001
Comprehensive
Tsinghua University
Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School
the year 2002
Comprehensive
Harbin Institute of Technology
Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen College
The year 2014
Comprehensive
Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University Shenzhen International Graduate School
The 2019 year
Comprehensive
Tsinghua University
Public colleges
Shenzhen Polytechnic
1993
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province
Shenzhen Vocational College of Information Technology
the year 2002
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province
Private colleges
Guangdong Xin’an Vocational and Technical College
the year 2002
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province
Adult Higher Education Institutions
Shenzhen Radio and Television University
1983
Comprehensive
Guangdong Province

Other institutions

vocational school
Shenzhen Technician College
Shenzhen Baoan Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Art School
Shenzhen Longgang Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Second Advanced Technical School
Shenzhen Third Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Shajing Vocational Senior High School
Shenzhen Open Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen No. 1 Vocational and Technical School
Huaqiang Vocational and Technical School, Futian District, Shenzhen
Shenzhen Fenda Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Bolun Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Xingzhi Vocational and Technical School
Shenzhen Kedi Technical School
International School
Shekou International School
Shenzhen Nanshan International School
QSI International School
Daya Bay French School
City Oasis International School
Shenzhen Oriental English Academy
Shenzhen International Exchange College
Shenzhen Nanshan Chinese and English School
Hong Kong School for Children
Hong Kong School for Children of Guangdong Province
Futian District Hong Kong Children’s School
Luohu District Hong Kong School for Children
Taiwanese Children’s School
Shenzhen Taiwanese Children’s School
Other international schools
Fujing Foreign Language School
Nanshan Chinese and English School
Longhua Chinese and English Experimental School
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