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Chinese Cities – Xi’an

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Xi’an, or “镐” for short, was called 长安 and 镐京 in ancient times. It is the provincial capital, sub-provincial cities, megacities, and core cities of the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration. It is an important central city in western China approved by the State Council and an important national scientific research, Education, industrial base. As of 2019, the city has 11 districts and 2 counties, with a total area of ​​10,752 square kilometers, a built-up area of ​​700.69 square kilometers, a permanent population of 10,203,500, an urban population of 7,612,800, and an urbanization rate of 74.61%.
xi'an overlooking snow scenery
Xi’an is located in the Guanzhong Plain in central, north near the Weihe River, south Qinling, eight water Yun Chang, UNESCO established in 1981 “world-historic city”, it is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization and the Chinese nation, Silk Road starting point, there have been more than a dozen dynasties in the history of this capital, Fenggao capital, Qin Fanggong, terracotta, Han Weiyang, Changle, Sui Daxing City, Tang Ming Gong, Xingqing Palace, etc. outline the “Chang’an Complex”.
Xi’an is China’s best tourist destination and one of China’s best international images. Two six heritage sites have been included in the “World Heritage List”, namely: Qin Shihuang Mausoleum and Terracotta Warriors, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Small Yan Pagoda, the site of Daming Palace in Chang’an City of Tang Dynasty, the site of Weiyang Palace in Chang’an City of Han Dynasty, Xingjiao Temple Tower. There are also scenic spots such as Xi’an City Wall, Bell and Drum Tower, Huaqing Pond, Zhongnan Mountain, Datang Furong Garden, Shaanxi History Museum, Forest of Steles, and other attractions. Xi’an has 7 “double first-class” construction universities, including Xi’an Jiaotong University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, and Xidian University.
In February 2018, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the ” Guanzhong Plain Urban Agglomeration Development Plan ” to support Xi’an in building a national central city, an international comprehensive transportation hub, and an international metropolis with historical and cultural characteristics.
xi'an map

Geographical environment

position

Xi’an City is located in the Guanzhong Basin in the middle of the Weihe River Basin, between 107.40 degrees to 109.49 degrees east longitude and 33.42 degrees to 34.45 degrees north latitude, bordering the Weihe River and the Loess Plateau in the north, and the Qinling Mountains in the south. It is bounded by Linghe and Bayuan Mountain in the east, connected with Huazhou District, Weinan City, Shangzhou and Luonan County in Weinan City; bounded by Taibai Mountain and Qinghua Loess Plateau in the west, bordered by Meixian and Taibai County; South to the main ridge of the North Qinling Mountains, dividing the boundaries with Foping County, Ningshan County, and Zhashui County; north to Weihe, northeast across Weihe, and Xianyang City, Yangling District and Sanyuan, Jingyang, Xingping, Wugong, Fufeng, Fu The equal counties (cities) are adjacent. The jurisdiction is about 204 kilometers long from east to west and 116 kilometers wide from north to south.

topography

The geological structure of Xi’an city spans two major units, the Qinling trough fold belt and the North China platform. About 130 million years ago, during the Yanshan Movement, a large fault spanning the northern foot of the Qinling Mountains occurred. Since the late Tertiary period about 3 million years ago, the neotectonic movement in the Qinling go through fold belt south of the large fault has been extremely active. The mountains rise sharply from the north to the south, creating the Qinling Mountains. At the same time, the Weihe rift, which belongs to the North China platform to the north of the Great Fault, continued to settle, forming the Weihe Plain under the combined effect of the aeolian loess cover and the alluvial deposits of the Weihe River.
The difference in altitude in Xi’an is the highest among all cities in the country. The majestic and steep Qinling Mountains with peaks and beautiful peaks are clearly demarcated from the open, flat and fertile Weihe Plain, which constitutes the main landform of Xi’an. The main ridge of the Qinling Mountains has an elevation of 2,000 to 2,800 meters, of which the southwestern tip of Taibai Mountain has an elevation of 3,867 meters, which is the highest mountain in the central part of the mainland. The Weihe Plain is 400 to 700 meters above sea level, of which the lowest part of the Weihe River bed in the northeast is 345 meters above sea level. The urban area of Xi’an was built on the secondary terraces of the Weihe Plain.
xi'an night scenery

hydrology

The river network in Xi’an is dense, with 54 rivers in total. Among them, the Weihe, Jinghe and Shichuan rivers are passing rivers. The rest of the rivers originate in the Qinling Mountains or the hills of Southeast Li. Most of the rivers flow from south to north through the Weihe Plain and into the Weihe River. The area of the Yellow River Basin accounts for 98.46% of the city’s total area.
The river basins in Xi’an vary greatly in area. There are Heihe, Bahe and Fenghe rivers with a basin area of more than 1,000 square kilometers. The drainage area of the above three rivers accounts for 82.37% of the total area in the territory.
The branch on the south side of the Weihe River originating from the Qinling Mountains. The north slope of the Qinling Mountains is steep, with deep valleys and alternating valleys and peaks. The river has the following structural characteristics:
One is that the flow direction is mostly southeast-northwest. The river twists southward along the gully in the Qinling Mountains. After exiting the valley, it flows from the southeast to the northwest along the topographical slope. The geological structural fault zone also runs roughly from the southeast to the northwest. The Ba, Chan, and Feng rivers all flow along the strike of the fault zone.
Second, the vertical decline of the river course is greater. When the upper reaches of the rivers flow through the Qinling Mountains, the valleys are deep, steep, and rapid. After exiting the valley, the middle reaches cuts through the piedmont alluvial sloping plain, the slope is reduced, and the water flow is slower.
The third is that the downstream river channel swings significantly and has the characteristics of wandering rivers. The Wei River continues to move northward, the Ba River swings from east to west, and the Feng River evolves from west to east, flooding alternately, forming a flaky spread of ancient river channels, frontier beaches and heart flats.
Fourth, the upper reaches of the river are tortuous and deep, with many canyons and rapids. There are as many as 70 Yukou on the north side of the Qinling Mountains.
Fifth, the accumulation of riverbed is obvious. From the source of the river to the estuary, as the slope decreases, the river’s sediment-carrying capacity decreases, and the suspended matter forms a regular accumulation and distribution along the river downstream.
The uneven distribution of runoff in time and space is a notable feature common to rivers in Xi’an. The difference in runoff between wet years and dry years is 4 to 7 times. The annual runoff difference of some mountain tributaries is up to 10 times, and some rivers even dry up in dry years. The annual runoff of the river also varies greatly. In the dry season of February each year, the runoff is only 2% of the annual total, and there are occasional interruptions. The runoff during the flood season from July to October accounts for 45% of the annual total. 56%.

climate

The plains of Xi’an City belong to the warm temperate zone and semi-humid continental monsoon climate, with four distinct seasons: cold, warm, dry and wet. Winter is cold, windy, foggy, less rain and snow; spring is warm, dry, windy, and climate changeable; summer is hot and rainy, droughts are prominent, thunderstorms and winds are frequent; autumn is cool, temperature drops rapidly, and autumn showers are obvious. The annual average temperature is 13. 0℃~13.7℃, the coldest January average temperature is -1.2℃~0.0℃, and the hottest July average temperature is 26.3℃~26.6℃.
The annual precipitation is 522.4~719.5 mm, increasing from north to south. July and September are two obvious precipitation peak months. The annual sunshine hours are 1646. 1~ 214.9 hours. The annual dominant wind direction varies from place to place. Xi’an city is northeast wind, Zhouzhi and Huxian are westerly winds, Gaoling and Lintong are east-northeast winds, Chang’an is southeast wind, and Lantian is northwest. wind. Meteorological disasters include drought, continuous rain, heavy rain, floods, urban waterlogging, hail, gale, hot dry wind, high temperature, thunder and lightning, sand and dust, heavy fog, haze, cold wave, low temperature and freezing damage.
xi'an beautiful nature scenery

Population and nation

population

At the end of 2019, the city’s permanent population was 10,203,500, a net increase of 199,800 over the end of 2018, of which the male population was 5.2146 million, accounting for 51.1%; the female population was 4,988,900, accounting for 48.9%, and the sex ratio was 104.5 ( Take women as 100, the ratio of men to women). In the whole year, there were 124,500 births with a birth rate of 12.32‰; 55,900 deaths with a death rate of 5.53‰; the natural growth rate was 6.79‰. The urban population was 7,612,800, accounting for 74.61% of the permanent population (resident population urbanization rate); the rural population was 2,590,700, accounting for 25.39%.

nation

Xi’an is a city where many Nationalities are scattered. As of 2012, there are 53 Nationalities in the city, of which 52 are a few Nationalities, with a population of 97,800 permanent residents, accounting for 1.15% of the total population. Among the minority nationalities, the Hui population has the largest population, with 64,216 people, accounting for 75.28% of the minority nationality’s total population. There are 5 other nationalities with 10,000 to 1,000 people, including 9,928 Manchu, 3,086 Mongolian, 1133 Korean, 1201 Zhuang, and 1,060 Tujia. There are 3 nationalities with 1,000-500 people, respectively. There are 848 Tibetans, 690 Uyghurs, and 655 Miaos; there are 7 nationalities between 500 and 100; 33 nationalities with less than 100 people, and 29 unidentified nationalities. Lianhu District has the largest minority nationality population, with more than 35,000 people, including 32,000 Hui people; Lantian County has the least, with 146 people.
xi'an famous food

Education

Xi’an is the city with the highest density of higher education and higher education in China. It has an important position in the country and is one of China’s five major education and scientific research centers. As of the end of 2019, there were 75 higher education schools in the city, including 63 regular colleges and universities and 12 adult colleges and universities. There are 1,373,600 students in various types of higher education and 396,800 graduates. Among them, there are 738,600 students in regular colleges and universities (undergraduates) and 191,800 graduates. There are also 43 postgraduate training institutions, more than 60 academicians of the two academies, 132,000 students, and 28,600 graduates. Among the universities, there are 2 “985 Project” universities, 7 “211 Project” universities (including the Air Force Military Medical University), and Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts, Xi’an Conservatory of Music, Xi’an Institute of Physical Education, and other specialties. Universities.
The strength of Xi’an private universities should not be underestimated. Among the top 30 Xi’an in the “Alumni Association 2018 Top 150 Private Universities in China”, Xi’an accounts for 5, among which Eurasia ranks 4th in the country and Peihua ranks 9th in the country.
xi'an university
School Name
Competent authority
School-level
Remarks
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Frontier and Coastal Defense Academy
army
Undergraduate
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force Engineering University
air force
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force Military Medical University
air force
World-class discipline construction universities
Xi’an Flight Academy of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force
air force
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Rocket Force Engineering University
Rocket Army
Chinese People’s Armed Police Force Engineering University
Armed police force
Xi’an Jiaotong University
Building a world-class university
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
Building a world-class university
Xidian University
Ministry of Education
World-class discipline construction universities
Changan University
Ministry of Education
World-class discipline construction universities
Shaanxi Normal University
Ministry of Education
World-class discipline construction universities
Northwest University
Shaanxi Province
World-class discipline construction universities
Xi’an University of Technology
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an University of Science and Technology
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an International Studies University
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts
Shaanxi Province
Northwest University of Political Science and Law
Shaanxi Province
XiAn Industrial University
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Polytechnic University
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Shiyou University
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an University of Posts
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an University of Finance and Economics
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Conservatory of Music
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Institute of Physical Education
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an University of Arts and Science
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Aeronautical Institute
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Medical College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Preschool Teachers College
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Peihua University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Eurasia University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an University of Foreign Affairs
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Institute of Translation and Interpretation
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xijing College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Siyuan College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Jiaotong Engineering Institute
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Automobile Vocational University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Vocational University of Information Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
City College of Xi’an Jiaotong University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Northwestern University Modern College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Huaqing College, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xingzhi College of Xi’an University of Finance and Economics
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Institute of Business and Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Innovation College of Yan’an University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Chang’an College, Xidian University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Mingde Institute of Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xinghua College of Chang’an University
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
School of High Technology, Xi’an University of Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
High-tech College of Xi’an University of Science and Technology
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Electric Power Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Specialist
Shaanxi National Defense Industry Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Aviation Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
National Demonstrative Higher Vocational College
Shaanxi Transportation Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Police Officer Vocational College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Vocational and Technical College of Economics and Management
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Railway Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Youth Vocational College
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Vocational College of Industry and Commerce
Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Vocational College of Art
Shaanxi Province
Xi’an High-tech Vocational College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Urban Construction Vocational College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Shaanxi Vocational and Technical College of Electronics and Information
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Haitang Vocational College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Oriental Asia-Pacific Vocational and Technical College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Shaanxi Vocational College of Tourism and Cooking
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
Private
Xi’an Medical College
Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education
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