Du Fu Poems: Lament along the Winding River- 杜甫《哀江头》

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哀江头

少陵野老吞声哭[1],

春日潜行[2]曲江曲。

江头宫殿锁千门,

细柳新蒲为谁绿[3]?

忆昔霓旌[4]下南苑,

苑中万物生颜色[5]。

昭阳殿里第一人,

同辇随君侍君侧。

辇前才人带弓箭,

白马嚼啮黄金勒。

翻身向天仰射云[6],

一笑正坠双飞翼。

明眸皓齿今何在?

血污游魂归不得。

清渭东流剑阁深,

去住彼此无消息。

人生有情泪沾臆,

江水江花岂终极?

黄昏胡骑[7]尘满城,

欲往城南望城北。

《哀江头》也是公元757年春天的作品。江指曲江,在长安的东南。汉武帝在江边修建了亭台楼阁,是汉唐两代的游览名胜。但安禄山攻占长安之后,宫门上锁,庭苑荒芜。杜甫一人偷偷前来,抚今追昔,不禁感慨系之,就写下了这首《哀江头》。前四句写沦陷后曲折多致的曲江已经人物全非,今非昔比了。自第五句起,八句回忆沦陷前春到曲江的繁华景象,特写唐玄宗和杨贵妃同车来游,宫中女官戎装侍卫,一箭射下两只大雁的盛况。自第十三句起,写杨贵妃因兵变惨死马嵬坡,身为游魂,欲归不得,而唐玄宗却经由剑阁入川,生死隔绝了。最后四句诗人见景伤情,感慨深沉,用无情的江水江花来反衬,更显得诗人情深。这深情表现在行动上,就是他本来要回城南,却心烦意乱,反而走向城北了。诗人在表达爱国热忱之时,也流露了对君王的伤悼之情。

注释:

[1]吞声哭:不敢出声地哭泣。

[2]潜行:偷偷地走到这里。

[3]为谁绿:国破家亡,连草木都失去了绿意。

[4]霓(ní)旌:指天子的旗。

[5]生颜色:蓬勃生辉。

[6]仰射云:仰射云间飞过的鸟。

[7]胡骑:指叛军的骑兵。

Lament along the Winding River

Old and deprived, I swallow tears on a spring day;

Along Winding River in stealth I go my way.

All palace gates and doors are locked on rivershore;

Willows and reeds are green for no one to adore.

I remember rainbow banners streamed at high tide

To Southern Park where everything was beautified.

The first lady of the Sunny Palace would ride

In the imperial chariot by the emperor’s side.

The horsewomen before her bore arrows and bow;

Their white steeds champed at golden bits on the front row.

One archer, leaning back, shot at cloud in the sky;

One arrow brought down two winged birds from on high.

Where are the first lady’s pearly teeth and eyes bright?

Her spirit, blood-stained, could not come back from the height.

Far from Sword Cliff, with River Wei her soul flew east;

The emperor got no news from her in the least.

A man who has a heart will wet his breast with tears.

Would riverside grass and flowers not weep for years?

At dusk the rebels’ horses overrun the town;

I want to go upward, but instead I go down.

 

《哀江头》是唐代大诗人杜甫的诗作。此诗前半首回忆唐玄宗与杨贵妃游幸曲江的盛事,后半首感伤贵妃之死和玄宗出逃,哀叹曲江的昔盛今衰,描绘了长安在遭到安史叛军洗劫后的萧条冷落景象,表达了诗人真诚的爱国情怀,及对国破家亡的深哀巨恸之情。全诗层次清晰,结构严整,首尾照应,艺术构思缜密,语言形象精练,给人以身临其境之感。

The poem “Lament along the Winding River-” is a poem by Du Fu, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty. The first half of the poem recalls the great event of Emperor Xuanzong and Yang Guifei’s visit to Qujiang River, while the second half laments the death of Guifei and the flight of Emperor Xuanzong, depicting the depression and desolation of Chang’an after it was sacked by the An-shi rebels, and expressing the poet’s sincere patriotic feelings and his deep sorrow for the destruction of his country and family. The poem is clearly layered, well-structured, with the first and last lines corresponding to each other, and the artistic conception is well thought out and the language is refined, giving people a sense of being there.

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