人治 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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rénzhì 人治

Rule by Man

通过规范人伦关系、道德观念和其他价值系统来治理国家和民众(与“法治”相对),是中国古代儒家政治哲学中最重要的治国理念。这种理念强调人在政治中的根本地位和作用,希望君主具备圣贤的人格,选择有道德和有才干的人治理国家,教育和感化臣民。在中国历史上,这种治国理念通常伴随着一个理想的期待,即实现君、臣、民三者之间的和谐相处,也就是“仁政”。

Rule by man, as opposed to rule by law, is the most important ruling concept in the Confucian political philosophy in ancient China. It calls for ruling a state and its people through orderly human relations, moral standards, and other value systems. Rule by man emphasizes the fundamental role and importance of people in conducting political affairs. It emphasizes that a ruler should have a lofty and noble character, select competent officials with integrity to run the state, and educate and influence the general public. In Chinese history, this concept of governance was designed to achieve a harmonious relationship between the sovereign, his officials, and his subjects, which meant “benevolent governance.”

引例 Citations:

◎人治所以正人。(《礼记·大传》郑玄注)

(人治就是用来规范人伦关系的。)

Rule by man aims to regulate human relations. (Zheng Xuan: Annotations on The Book of Rites)

◎情性者,人治之本,礼乐所由生也。(王充《论衡·本性》)

(人治究其根本在于治理人的情感和欲望,而这也是制定礼乐的原因和依据。)

Rule by man, in the final analysis, is to regulate human emotions and desires; it is the reason and basis for developing social norms and music education. (Wang Chong: A Comparative Study of Different Schools of Learning)

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