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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy徐渭 草书:李白《金陵酒肆留别》

徐渭 草书:李白《金陵酒肆留别》

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徐渭 草书:李白《金陵酒肆留别》


【释文】风吹柳花满店香,吴姬压酒唤客尝。金陵子弟来相送,欲行不行各尽觞。请君试问东流水,别意与之谁短长。

【款识】徐渭。

【注释】金陵:今江苏省南京市。酒肆:酒店。吴姬:吴地的青年女子,这里指卖酒女。压酒:酒酿成时,压酒糟取酒。尽觞:干杯。

【简析】

  杨花飘絮的时节,江南水村山郭的一家小酒店里,即将离开金陵的诗人,满怀别绪,独坐小酌。骀荡的春风,卷起了垂垂欲下的杨花,轻飞乱舞,扑满店中;当垆的姑娘,捧出新压榨出来的美酒,劝客品尝。这里,柳絮蒙蒙,酒香郁郁,扑鼻而来,也不知是酒香,还是柳花香。这么一幅令人陶醉的春光春色的画面,该用多少笔墨来表现!只“风吹柳花满店香”七字,就将风光的骀荡,柳絮的精神,以及酒客沉醉东风的情调,生动自然地浮现在纸面之上;而且又极洒脱超逸,不费半分气力,脱口而出,纯任直观,于此,不能不佩服李白的才华。

  “风吹柳花满店香”时,店中简直就是柳花的世界。柳花本来无所谓香,这里何以用一个“香”字呢?一则“心清闻妙香”,任何草木都有它微妙的香味;二则这个“香”字代表了春之气息,同时又暗暗勾出下文的酒香。这里的“店”,初看不知何店,凭仗下句始明了是指酒店。实在也唯有酒店中的柳花才会香,不然即使是最雅致的古玩书肆,在情景的协调上,恐怕也还当不起“风吹柳花满店香”这七个字。所以这个“香”字初看似觉突兀,细味却又感到是那么的妥贴。

  首句是阒无一人的境界,第二句“吴姬压酒劝客尝”,当垆红粉遇到了酒客,场面上就出现人了,等到“金陵子弟”这批少年一涌而至时,酒店中就更热闹了。别离之际,本来未必有心饮酒,而吴姬一劝,何等有情,加上“金陵子弟”的前来,更觉情长,谁能舍此而去呢?可是偏偏要去,“来相送”三字一折,直是在上面热闹场面上泼了一盆冷水,点出了从来热闹繁华就是冷寂寥落的前奏。李白要离开金陵了。但是,如此热辣辣的诀舍,总不能跨开大步就走吧?于是又转为“欲行不行各尽觞”,欲行的诗人固陶然欲醉,而不行的相送者也各尽觞,情意如此之长,于是落出了“请君试问东流水,别意与之谁短长”的结句,以含蓄的笔法,悠然无尽地结束了这一首抒情的短歌。

  沈德潜说此诗“语不必深,写情已足”(《唐诗别裁》)。因为诗人留别的不是一两个知己,而是一群青年朋友,所以诗中把惜别之情写得饱满酣畅,悠扬跌宕,唱叹而不哀伤,表现了诗人青壮年时代丰采华茂、风流潇洒的情怀。

【Simple Translation】

  In a small hotel in a mountain village in the south of the Yangtze River, the poet, who was about to leave Jinling, was full of farewell thoughts and sat alone to drink. The myrrh breeze rolled up the drooping poplar flowers, which danced all over the store; the girl who worked as a shopkeeper held out the newly pressed wine and urged the customers to taste it. Here, the willow wisps, the fragrance of wine, the nose, I do not know whether it is the fragrance of wine, or willow flowers. Such an enchanting picture of spring, how much ink and brush should be used to express it! Only seven words, “The wind blows the willow flowers to fill the store with fragrance”, bring to the surface of the paper the myrrh of the scenery, the spirit of the willow, and the mood of the drinkers intoxicated by the east wind, vividly and naturally; moreover, it is extremely spontaneous and superb, without any half-hearted effort, out of the mouth, purely intuitive.

  When “the wind blowing willow flowers full of store fragrance”, the store is simply the world of willow flowers. There is no such thing as fragrant willow flowers, so why use the word “fragrant” here? One, “the heart is clear and smells wonderful”, any grass has its subtle fragrance; two, the word “fragrance” represents the breath of spring, and at the same time secretly evokes the fragrance of wine below. The “store” here, at first glance do not know what store, with the next sentence began to understand that refers to the hotel. In fact, the only hotel willow flowers will be fragrant, otherwise even the most elegant antique bookstore, in the coordination of the scene, I’m afraid it can not afford to “wind blowing willow flowers full store fragrance” these seven words. The word “fragrance” may seem abrupt at first, but on closer examination it feels so appropriate.

  The first line is the realm of no one, the second line “Wu Ji pressed the wine to persuade the guests to taste”, when the shop red powder met the drinkers, the scene on the people, until the “Jinling children” the group of teenagers flocked to the hotel, the hotel will be more lively. The occasion of parting, originally may not have the heart to drink, and Wu Ji a persuasion, such as love, plus “Jinling children” to come, more feeling long, who can leave this and go? But it is to go, “to send off” three words a fold, straight in the above lively scene on a pot of cold water, pointing out the lively and prosperous is always cold and lonely prelude. Li Bai is leaving Jinling. However, he can’t just take a big step away from such a hot secret house, right? The poet who wants to go is certainly drunk, but those who do not want to see him off also finish their goblets, and the sentiment is so long that the ending line of “Please ask the gentleman to try to flow the water in the east, and who will be short and long with it” is a subtle way to end the poem. The poem ends with a short song of lyricism.

  Shen Deqian says that this poem “need not be deep, but it is sufficient to write about emotions” (Tang Poems”). Because the poet left not one or two confidants, but a group of young friends, the poem is full of farewell feelings, languid and downbeat, singing and sighing without mourning, showing the poet’s richness and elegance in his youthful prime.

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