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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy王震 行书:杜甫《春日忆李白》

王震 行书:杜甫《春日忆李白》

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王震 行书:杜甫《春日忆李白》


【释文】白也诗无敌,飘然思不群。清新庾开府,俊逸鲍参军。渭北春天树,江东日暮云。何时一樽酒,重与细论文。

【款识】杜工部春日忆李白诗,辛未冬初,白龙山人。

【简析】

  杜甫同李白的友谊,首先是从诗歌上结成的。这首怀念李白的五律,是天宝五载(746)或六载(747)春杜甫居长安时所作,主要就是从这方面来落笔的。开头四句,一气贯注,都是对李白诗的热烈赞美。首句称赞他的诗冠绝当代。第二句是对上句的说明,是说他之所以“诗无敌”,就在于他思想情趣,卓异不凡,因而写出的诗,出尘拔俗,无人可比。接着赞美李白的诗象庾信那样清新,象鲍照那样俊逸。庾信、鲍照都是南北朝时的着名诗人。庾信在北周官至骠骑大将军、开府仪同三司(司马、司徒、司空),世称庾开府。鲍照刘宋时任荆州前军参军,世称鲍参军。这四句,笔力峻拔,热情洋溢,首联的“也”、“然”两个语助词,既加强了赞美的语气,又加重了“诗无敌”、“思不群”的分量。

  对李白奇伟瑰丽的诗篇,杜甫在题赠或怀念李白的诗中,总是赞扬备至。从此诗坦荡真率的赞语中,也可以见出杜甫对李白诗是何等钦仰。这不仅表达了他对李白诗的无比喜爱,也体现了他们的诚挚友谊。清代杨伦评此诗说:“首句自是阅尽甘苦上下古今,甘心让一头地语。窃谓古今诗人,举不能出杜之范围;惟太白天才超逸绝尘,杜所不能压倒,故尤心服,往往形之篇什也。”(《杜诗镜铨》)这话说得很对。这四句是因忆其人而忆及其诗,赞诗亦即忆人。但作者并不明说此意,而是通过第三联写离情,自然补明。这样处理,不但简洁,还可避免平铺直叙,而使诗意前后勾联,曲折变化。

  表面看来,第三联两句只是写了作者和李白各自所在之景。“渭北”指杜甫所在的长安一带;“江东”指李白正在漫游的江浙一带地方。“春天树”和“日暮云”都只是平实叙出,未作任何修饰描绘。分开来看,两句都很一般,并没什么奇特之处。然而作者把它们组织在一联之中,却自然有了一种奇妙的紧密的联系。也就是说,当作者在渭北思念江东的李白之时,也正是李白在江东思念渭北的作者之时;而作者遥望南天,惟见天边的云彩,李白翘首北国,惟见远处的树色,又自然见出两人的离别之恨,好象“春树”、“暮云”,也带着深重的离情。故而清代黄生说:“五句寓言己忆彼,六句悬度彼忆己。”(《杜诗说》)两句诗,牵连着双方同样的无限情思。回忆在一起时的种种美好时光,悬揣二人分别后的情形和此时的种种情状,这当中该有多么丰富的内容。这两句,看似平淡,实则每个字都千锤百炼;语言非常朴素,含蕴却极丰富,是历来传颂的名句。清代沈德潜称它“写景而离情自见”(《唐诗别裁》),明代王嗣奭《杜臆》引王慎中语誉为“淡中之工”,都极为赞赏。

  上面将离情写得极深极浓,这就自然引出了末联的热切希望:什么时候才能再次欢聚,象过去那样,把酒论诗啊!把酒论诗,这是作者最难忘怀、最为向往的事,以此作结,正与诗的开头呼应。言“重与”,是说过去曾经如此,这就使眼前不得重晤的怅恨更为悠远,加深了对友人的怀念。用“何时”作诘问语气,把希望早日重聚的愿望表达得更加强烈,使结尾余意不尽,令人读完全诗,心中犹回荡着作者的无限思情。

  清代浦起龙说:“此篇纯于诗学结契上立意”(《读杜心解》),确实道出这首诗内容和结构上的特点。全诗以赞诗起,以“论文”结,由诗转到人,由人又回到诗,转折过接,极其自然,通篇始终贯穿着一个“忆”字,把对人和对诗的倾慕怀念,结合得水乳交融。以景寓情的手法,更是出神入化,把作者的思念之情,写得深厚无比,情韵绵绵。

【Simple Translation】

  The friendship between Du Fu and Li Bai was first formed through poetry. This poem of five lines in memory of Li Bai, written when Du Fu was living in Chang’an in the spring of the fifth (746) or sixth (747) year of Tianbao, is mainly written from this aspect. The first four lines of the poem are all devoted to Li Bai’s poetry in one breath. The first line praises his poetry as the best of his generation. The second sentence is an explanation of the previous one, saying that the reason why he is “invincible in poetry” is that his thoughts and feelings are so extraordinary that his poems are out of the ordinary and unmatched. Then Li Bai’s poems are as fresh as Yu Xin’s and as handsome as Bao Zhaoge’s. Yu Xin and Bao Zhaoge were both famous poets during the Northern and Southern Dynasties. In the Northern Zhou Dynasty, Yu Xin was the general of the Phyo Mounted Army and the three secretaries of the opening ceremony, known as Yu Kaifu. Bao Zhaoge, who was the former army counsellor of Jingzhou during the Song Dynasty, is known as Bao Senjun. These four lines are written with great strength and enthusiasm, and the two auxiliary words “also” and “then” in the first couplet not only strengthen the tone of praise, but also aggravate the meaning of “the poem is invincible” and “the thought is unrivaled”, The first couplet of “also” and “ran” not only strengthens the tone of praise, but also increases the weight of “invincible poetry” and “unrivaled thinking”.

  Du Fu always praises Li Bai’s magnificent poems in his inscriptions or poems in memory of Li Bai. The poem’s frank and sincere praise also shows how much Du Fu admired Li Bai’s poems. This not only expresses his immense love for Li Bai’s poems, but also reflects their sincere friendship. Yang Lun of the Qing dynasty commented on this poem, “The first line is the words of a poet who has read all the hardships of the past and present, and is willing to give way to the ground. It is said that the poets of the ancient and modern worlds cannot get out of the range of Du; but the genius of Taibai is superb, and Du cannot be overwhelmed, so he is particularly convinced, and is often shaped into a piece of writing.” (Du Poetry Mirror Ambrose) This is very true. These four lines are a remembrance of his poem because of his memory of the man, and the poem is also a remembrance of the man. However, the author does not specify this meaning, but naturally complements it through the third couplet, which is about separation. This is not only concise, but also avoids the need for a straightforward narrative, and allows the poem’s meaning to be linked back and forth, with twists and turns.

  On the surface, the two lines in the third couplet are only about the respective scenes of the author and Li Bai. The “Weibei” refers to the area around Chang’an where Du Fu is located; the “Jiangdong” refers to the area around Jiangsu and Zhejiang where Li Bai is wandering. Both “Spring Trees” and “Sunset Clouds” are just plain narratives without any embellishment. Separately, the two lines are very ordinary and nothing special. However, when the author organizes them in one couplet, they naturally have a marvelous and close connection. In other words, when the author is thinking of Li Bai in the north of Wei, he is also thinking of the author in the north of Jiangdong; and when the author is looking at the south sky, he can only see the clouds in the sky, and when Li Bai is looking at the north, he can only see the color of the trees in the distance. “, but also with a deep feeling of separation. Therefore, Huang Sheng of the Qing Dynasty said, “The fifth line is an allegory of one’s own remembrance of the other, while the sixth line is a suspension of one’s remembrance of the other.” (“Du Poetic Sayings”) The two lines of the poem implicate the same infinite feelings of both sides. They recall all the good times when they were together, and they also speculate on the situation after they parted and the situation at this time. These two lines seem to be plain, but every word of them is refined; the language is very simple, but the meaning is extremely rich, which is a famous line that has been praised for many years. Shen Deqian of the Qing dynasty called it “a poem about a scene in which the emotions of separation are seen” (“Tang Poems”), and Wang Jishu of the Ming dynasty cited Wang Shenzhong’s words as “a work of art in the midst of lightness”, both of which were highly appreciated.

  The above description of the separation is so deep and intense that it naturally leads to the fervent hope of the last couplet: When will we be able to get together again and discuss poetry with wine as we did in the past? This is the most unforgettable and longing thing for the author, and the ending of the poem echoes the beginning of the poem. The word “reunite” means that we used to do so in the past, which makes the regret of not meeting again even more distant and deepens the nostalgia for our friend. The use of “when” as a cross-examination expresses the desire to be reunited as soon as possible, making the ending endlessly meaningful, making the author’s infinite thoughts reverberate in one’s mind when reading the whole poem.

  In the Qing Dynasty, Pu Qilong said, “This poem is purely based on the poetics of the poetic contract” (“Reading Du Xin Jie”), which indeed illustrates the characteristics of this poem in terms of content and structure. The poem starts with a hymn and ends with an essay, moving from poetry to people and from people back to poetry, with a natural turn of events. The technique of using the scene to imply emotion is even more remarkable, making the author’s longing for the poem profound and rhyming.

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