绘画六法 – Chinese philosophy and culture

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huìhuà liù fǎ 绘画六法

Six Rules of Painting

中国古代关于绘画创作的六种手法与美学原则。南朝齐梁画家谢赫通过品鉴历代名家画作,总结出气韵生动、骨法用笔、应物象形、随类赋彩、经营位置、传移模写等六种基本方法与原则,初步建构起传统绘画理论体系。“气韵生动”是要求画作具有被观者真切感觉到的生气与神韵,是立足审美效果的总体原则。以下五方面是绘画的具体技法要求:“骨法用笔”是指运笔能自如呈现人物的各种线条变化,“应物象形”是指造型要顺应对象的外形特征,“随类赋彩”是根据人物对象的特征进行着色,“经营位置”是指构图要合理搭配而呈现整体效果,“传移模写”是通过临摹佳作来掌握绘画技艺。后人据此品评画作,并就五方面技法要求展开论述、总结经验,丰富画论体系。“绘画六法”揭示了中国古代绘画的基本手法与美学原则,也是从事绘画批评的标准,它影响了六朝之后的中国绘画批评与创作实践。

The term refers to six techniques and aesthetic principles for painting formulated by Xie He, a painter of the Southern Qi and Liang dynasties. After studying famous painters of the previous age, he summarized his views on painting in six basic rules: dynamic style, forceful brush strokes, life-like image, characteristic coloring, careful arrangement and imitation and copying models. In this way, he established a theoretical framework for traditional painting. “Dynamic style” means that a painting should make the viewers appreciate its vitality and charm. This is a general principle focusing on the aesthetic effect. The other five rules concern specific techniques. “Forceful brush strokes” means being able to wield the brush to portray characters freely with lines of various shapes. “Life-like image” means the image should vividly capture the form of the depicted. “Characteristic coloring” means applying color according to the characteristics of the subject of the painting. “Careful arrangement” means a composition should achieve a good overall effect. “Imitation and copying models” means copying masterpieces to refine one’s painting skills. These rules became the basis for later art criticism and discourse on the five aspects of technique, providing a summary of ideal painting techniques and enriching theory on painting. The “six rules of painting” cover the basic techniques and aesthetics of ancient Chinese painting. They also established guidelines for art appreciation and influenced criticism and artistic creation in China from the Six Dynasties on.

引例 Citations:

◎六法者何?一曰气韵生动是也,二曰骨法用笔是也,三曰应物象形是也,四曰随类赋彩是也,五曰经营位置是也,六曰传移模写是也。(谢赫《古画品录》)

(绘画的六个法则是什么呢?其一是作品要充满生气,富有神韵;其二是运笔能自如呈现各种线条变化;其三是造型要顺应对象外形特征;其四是要根据对象特征进行着色;其五是构图要合理搭配,呈现整体效果;其六是要临摹佳作以传承前人画技。)

What are the six rules? First, dynamic style. Second, forceful brush strokes. Third, life-like image. Fourth, characteristic coloring. Fifth, careful arrangement. Sixth, imitation and copying models. (Xie He: An Appraisal of Ancient Paintings)

◎六法精论,万古不移,然而骨法用笔以下,五者可学,如其气韵,必在生知,固不可以巧密得,复不可以岁月到,默契神会,不知然而然也。(郭若虚《画图见闻志》)

(谢赫提出的绘画六法所论精当,万古不会改变。但是“骨法用笔”以下五方面可以学习,至于“气韵生动”,必定需要与生俱来的天赋,既不能凭借精巧细密而得到,也不能通过长期的积累获得,只能靠心灵去感悟、契合,虽不知怎么做但不知不觉就做到了。)

The six rules of painting are succinct and discerning and will stand the test of time. The latter five rules, starting with “forceful brush strokes,” can be learned. But “dynamic style” requires innate aptitude and is not something that can be acquired just through scrupulous efforts or lengthy practice. Only an inspired mind can achieve dynamic style, yet without consciously knowing how. (Guo Ruoxu: Experiences in Painting)

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