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Chinese Characters – Running script

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Running script is a collective term for calligraphy, divided into two types: Xingkai and Xingcao. It developed and originated on the basis of regular script. It is a font between regular script and cursive script. It was created to compensate for the slow writing speed of regular scripts and the difficulty of recognizing cursive script. “Xing” means “walking”, so it is not scribbled like the cursive script, nor is it as straightforward as a regular script. In essence, it is the cursiveization of regular script or the regularization of a cursive script. Those with more regular scripts than cursive are called “Xingkai”, and those with more cursive than regular scripts are called “Xing Cao”. The running script has high practicability and artistry, while the regular script is a text symbol with high practicability and skill; in comparison, the cursive script is highly artistic, but its practicability is relatively insufficient.

Running script-CHINA


Writing origin

First, according to Zhang Huai Guan’s” book break “, he said: “running script who is the Han YingChuan Liu Desheng had made, that being books of small false, works from simple, so that the running script.” By the mean with knowledge: “running hand” Yes ” The font of “Zhengshu”. Qing Song Cao says: “that Walker, that little book of true vertical slightly after a simple white line, clouds the waterline, between Nong fiber out, neither true nor grass, round escape from the square, the Czech Republic is the Kai Li also. It must be small and sparse, with peace and elegance, strong muscles and strong strength, and strong style. Although the characters are not connected to the climate, the ink is commensurate with the excess fat and barrenness. Slowly walking, making the rules; looking left and right, not obedient to the program. Use should not be too late. Late is obsessive and heavy; it is also not advisable to be too fast, and speed will lose momentum.”


Second, according to Wang Sengqian “Since ancient times names can book,” saying: ” Zhong Yao book has trisomy: a stone-ming said the book, the most wonderful person too; second is statute book, biography secretary, who also taught elementary school; the third is OK The book is also called by the person who hears it. Hedong Wei Kaizi adopts Zhang Zhi’s method and uses the method of Kaifa to participate, and the draft is more draft. The draft is the book of Xiangwen.” Therefore, Zhixingshu is also called Xingyashu, and it was originally signed by the painting agency. Developed. Those who have heard of it refer to writing letters and the like.


The appearance of the running script is about the same as the eight-fen-kai method, and its form is also very close to the eight-fen-kai method and later official scripts. This is equivalent to changing (chapter) cursive script from the official script- deriving other branches from “traditional characters”. Huan Ling towards the ” traditional characters ” in addition to the official script, followed by “eight Kaifa,” so people would think the running script is the “eighth Kaifa” another branch. In fact, it is also with the other body of the book, like the original founders or general masses writer, as long as eight have to go write some of it away with other calligraphy flow scribe body wave potential, it becomes a running script, usually in the late Han Dynasty unearthed in Jane book, we can see everywhere. At the end of the Han Dynasty, the running script was not widely used. It was not until the appearance of Wang Xizhi of the Jin Dynasty that it became popular.

Writing origin

The running script came to Wang Xizhi’s hands, combining its practicality and artistry. Thus, the art of running calligraphy of the Southern School that shines through the ages was created, which became the most influential one in the history of calligraphy. Li Zhimin, a professor at Peking University and the founder of the introduction of the stele to the grass, commented: ” Wang Xizhi ‘s calligraphy not only expresses the simplicity and profoundness based on Lao Zhuang’s philosophy but also expresses the conflict based on the Confucian doctrine of the mean.”


The Southern Song Dynasty Jiang Kui’s ” Xing Shu Pu ·Xing Shu ” said: “Taste Yi to test Wei and Jin Xing Shu, it is one of its own, different from the cursive script. It becomes true with frankness so that it can be easily carried. Although it is called a running script, each has a fixed body, and it is not far from the other sages of the Jin Dynasty. ” Lanting Preface ” and the Youjun posts are the first, Xie Anshi and Daling are second, Yan, Liu, Su, and Mi are also remarkable people in later generations. Most importantly, old pens are valuable, and there are few mistakes, and they can also reflect. All the valuables are from the fiber, the blood is connected, the muscles and bones are old, the wind is scattered, and the posture is equipped, really. A true attitude, an attitude of action and action, an attitude of cursiveness. It must be learned and can be both.”


Note: The end of the running script must have momentum. Method one is to increase the inclination of the horizontal and vertical paintings to increase the momentum of the entire character; secondly, tilt the square character into a hypotenuse to enhance the momentum of the character from the danger; third, use the method of leaning and being dependent to make the font It is lively and stable without being swayed; Fourth, the contrast between virtual and real is adopted to make the font achieve dynamic and balanced requirements. In addition, pay attention to the size, whiteness, virtual and solid, thickness, dryness of the characters, and the characteristics of the pen. The running script written in this way will naturally move. At the same time, because the rhythm of writing and moving pens is relatively fast, it is necessary to pay special attention to the calmness of the pen, to indulge, to capture, to expand, and to retain. Avoid slippery, thin, and empty pens, especially writing pens such as long strokes and hanging needles. When closing the pens, they should be sharp and full, full of strength and surplus, and do not use their best. , Making a false point and erratic shape.


Writing development

Running script is a type of script between regular script and cursive script, which appeared around the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The name of the running script was first seen in the article ” Si Ti Shu Shi” by Wei Heng in the Western Jin Dynasty: “At the beginning of the Wei Dynasty, there were Zhong (Yao) and Hu (Zhao) who practiced calligraphy, and both learned from Liu Desheng.” Zhang Huai-Luan in the Tang Dynasty, ” Book Break ” The record: “Liu Desheng also wrote the script. It is the small false of the original script, which should be simple and popular, so it is called the script.” Zhang Huaiyuan said in his ” Book Discussion “: “The husband’s script is not cursive but not true. The escape round is between Ji and Meng. The one who is both true is called the true action, and the one who takes the grass is called the grass.” Fengfang of the Ming Dynasty has a more vivid description in ” Shu Jue “: Instead of engraving, turning light to heavy pressing, like the flow of water, without interruption, it will last forever in business.” Because of its unique artistic expression and wide practicality, running scripts have been born because of their flowing, fast writing, elegant and easy-to-recognize artistic expression, and wide practicality. It is deeply loved and widely spread. After the golden period of the Wei and Jin Dynasties and the development period of the Tang Dynasty, the running script reached a new peak in the Song Dynasty and gradually occupied the mainstream position in various writing styles. Throughout the long history of calligraphy, the development of seal script, official script, and regular script all have changes in ups and downs, while the running script has always been prosperous and has always been a prominent study in the field of calligraphy. The calligraphy masters of the past dynasties have jointly written the glorious and splendid history of the development of the running script.


With the vigorous development of contemporary calligraphy art, the exploration and innovation of running calligraphy have set off a wave of enthusiasm, presenting a prosperous scene of diversification. In the complicated calligraphy craze, the author used his own understanding and the persistent pursuit of calligraphy, rationally explored, and summed up some preliminary experiences and insights from years of practice.

Writing development

In the vast treasure house of calligraphy art, the running script is undoubtedly one of the most colorful, rich, and heavy treasures. Where Wang Xizhi wrote known as “the best in the world running script” of the “Preface” Yen Chen created the “second world running script” ” Festival nephew presentation,” Su Shi created the “third world running script” “The Cold Food Observance,” Wang Xun created ” Boyuan Tie”, Wang Xianzhi created “Duck Head Pill Tie” and so on. These classic works that illuminate the starry sky of calligraphy art are the essence of art left over after a long period of time. They are the unique contribution of the Chinese nation to the field of human aesthetics.


Layout plan

Patch size

Because of “indulgence”, the height, width, and area of ​​running scripts are different, and there is even a big gap. Therefore, the running script adopts the “longitudinal line, horizontal without column” chapter. Since the number of characters in a line is not fixed, it is allowed to write very long; because there is a certain amount of horizontal stretch, it is allowed to write very wide. In this way, the running script has a relatively free creative space in terms of the structure of the font.


Adjust the severity

“Seek peace in danger” is an important factor in the beauty of plastic art, and to achieve a balance, you must learn to adjust the severity.


Swing left and right

Chinese characters [4]  have swayed to the left and right. They sway to the left and right, not only to show the spirit of the character, but also to easily intersperse between the lines, and can effectively adjust the weight. Therefore, “swing left and right” has become a common way of running script layouts.


Up and down

Penetrating qi is the most important technique for the layout of the running script.


Strive for harmony

The above four points are the specific methods for the layout of the plan, and “harmony” is the overall requirement for the layout of the plan. Regardless of the size of the space and the number of words, it is a unity. Harmony mainly includes the following points: harmonious unity of strokes, harmonious unity of white, harmonious unity of style, and unity of font.

Writing characteristics


Writing characteristics

Pen features

Running script is a type of script between regular script and cursive. The writing is more indulgent and fluid, which is close to cursive script, which is called Xing Cao; the writing is relatively correct and stable, which is close to the regular script, which is called Xingkai.


In the process of writing, the turning of the brush is more obvious in various forms of stippling. This kind of movement of the brush often leaves mutual entanglement between the stippling and between the characters, as thin as a hairspring. This is Silken.


Running script is regular script fast write, is the regular script flow. After analyzing several groups of characters in the regular script and running script, it is found that when writing the regular script and running script, the writing method of stippling and the rules that must be followed with the pen, such as center, paving, back in and out, lift and press, and Tibetan front, etc. Consistent, it’s just that the running script is more stretched and flowing.


The pen used in the running script has the following characteristics:

[1] Most stippling is written on paper with a sharp front;


[2] Replace the flat side with the side;


[3] Replace complicated stippling with simple strokes;


[4] Use hooks, picks, and pull wires to strengthen the correspondence between points and paintings;


[5] Replace square fold with round turn ;


Structural features

That is, each character is different in size, and there is a connection between the pen and the pen of a character, and the connection between the characters is both actual and intentional, and there are disconnected and connected.


Combination of retractable. Generally, the short line is to close, the long line is to release; the back front is to close, and the side forward is to release; most of them are left retracted and right released, up retracted and lowered, but they can also be converted to each other.


Sparse and decently. Generally dense at the top, sparse at the bottom, dense at the left and sparse at the right, and dense inside and outside. The middle palace is tightly knotted, the smaller the space in the box, the better, and the smaller the space in the circled strokes, the better. The layout is tightly spaced, the line spacing is opened, and it leaps and jumps vigorously.


Intensity blends. Writing in the running script should be relaxed, lively, and swift, and master the combination of illness and delay, movement and stillness. The ink color arrangement should be thick at the beginning and dry at the end. The lines are long, thin, short, and thick, with suitable light and heavy, with alternating shades. Similar to cursive, but not as cursive.

Structural features

Learning points

There are a few key points to pay attention to when learning to run script:


1. Get rid of the rule of regular script

When practicing regular script, what I tell you is to pick up the pen to hide the front, and there should be changes in the turning point. The strokes of the hook should be paused and then picked out. These essentials should be avoided and forgotten when writing the running script. For example, if you compare regular script to martial arts routines, then the running script is Sanda. You can’t start from the beginning for every movie, but it’s smooth. Hard-stroke running script advocates fluent writing and roughly conforms to the norms. This is a good running script.


2. Serious copying

To learn running script well, it is necessary to go through a period of special training to master its brushwork and the rules of knotting. When copying, you have to find a good copybook for yourself. Zhao Mengfu ‘s gall stele is a good copybook. You can practice calligraphy, or you can reduce and copy hard pen calligraphy. Hard pen calligraphers Lu Zhongnan, Ding Yongkang, and Wu Yusheng The copybooks of others can be written. Practicing brush calligraphy while practicing hard calligraphy has great benefits for learning calligraphy and can complement each other. The brush calligraphy is meticulously carved, and the hard calligraphy is repeatedly refined, from large to small, and then from small to large, which is very helpful to strengthen the understanding of calligraphy learning.


3. Read posts

The ways to practice calligraphy are nothing more than two methods, namely, copying and reading. It is particularly important to practice calligraphy and reading. Tian Huijun, the writer of the plaque in our calligraphy and painting class, is a good friend of mine, and his hobby is similar to mine. The way he practiced calligraphy was to read the posts, seldom make a copy and write the calligraphy smoothly and smoothly. Originally I wrote the official script, but the running script is also very good. Some people learn calligraphy from the regular script and some from the official script. The problem that people who write official scripts tend to make is that they often do not write well in running scripts. However, Mr. Tian’s running script has profound skills and demeanor. According to him, his method is to read posts.


4.Practice hard

There is a stage of adaptation at the beginning of practicing a running script. When you don’t write well, you feel that you lose face. It’s okay. You can practice in your notebook, or you can practice writing in a running diary for yourself. Practice makes perfect, from one word to a paragraph, from a few words, one line to a single character, gradually master the rules of running script, and gradually form your own style of a running script. Be good at absorbing nutrition from many aspects, such as celebrity inscriptions, business plaques, school teachers, and even among classmates. As long as you observe carefully, you can find good words written by others. If you learn them, they will become your words.


Creation requirements

We must first understand the requirements of appreciation or creation. There are three criteria for a good calligraphy work, namely, mastery of reasoning and law, strong pen strength, and graceful posture. The ancients said: “It embodies the new meaning in the tradition and the magic in the law.” “The charm is the first, the form and quality are the second.” A good calligraphy work strives to achieve the beauty of line, structure, composition, and ink color. Secondly, we must copy carefully, learn to use the pen correctly, and dare to make breakthroughs. When copying, you must choose the famous and wonderful track, and experience the heart rhythm, rhythm, and spirit of the ancients from reading the rubbings. Get it in the heart, give it to the hand. The main post should be read and presented repeatedly, mainly to solve the problems of pen technique, pen use, and structure. Inheritance is an important foundation of innovation, and innovation is the necessary development of inheritance. From “walking in” to “walking out”, from resemblance to resemblance, a distinct personal style is formed. The so-called “picking a hundred flowers and brewing home honey”.


Again, it must be fully brewed before creation. Reference is one aspect, and more importantly, it is to know the subject, genre and expression method, and other creative ideas. To seriously consider each word of the guitar body, try not to appear similar words or stroke; on the art of composition to be carefully arranged, can lay sample in advance, but when writing thoughts can not be bound by its; brush to pay attention to rhythm, dynamics The predecessor’s so-called “incorporating vigor and grace in gracefulness, and vigor and strength in gracefulness ” is the concrete embodiment of the pen method.



The most famous of the masterpieces of the running script is the preface of the Orchid Pavilion by the calligrapher Wang Xizhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. The predecessors described it as “the first running script in the world ” as “the dragon jumps into the sky, the tiger lies on the phoenix “.


The Manuscript of Sacrifice to Nephew written by Yan Zhenqing in the Tang Dynasty was very bold and unrestrained. The ancients commented it as ” the second line in the world “. And Su Shi’s ” Huangzhou Han Shi Tie ” is called ” the third line of the world .” The famous representative work in Xingkai is ” Lushan Temple Stele ” by Li Yong of the Tang Dynasty, which is smooth and smooth.


There are also Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu, Cai Xiang in the Song Dynasty, Zhao Mengfu, Xian Yushu, and Kang Li Nuo in the Yuan Dynasty, Zhu Yunming, Wen Zhengming, Dong Qichang, Li Darwen, Wang Duo in the Ming Dynasty, Liu Yong and He Shaoji in the Qing Dynasty, In modern times, Yu Youren, Qi Gong, Li Zhimin, Sha Menghai, Zhang Xin, etc. are all good at the running script or cursive, and many works have been handed down to the world.


The three major running scripts in the world. Because of the praise and praise of many schools, the world called the “Han Shi Tie “, the Eastern Jin Wang Xizhi’s “Lanting Preface” and the Tang Dynasty Yan Zhenqing’s ” Sacrifice to Nephew Draft ” collectively as the “three major running scripts “, or simply ” “Han Shi Tie” is “the third line book in the world.” Some people compare the “Three Xing Shu in the world” as a comparison: ” Lanting Preface ” is the style of the elegant and superhuman, ” Memorial Nephew Draft ” is the style of a sage, “Han Shi Tie” It is the style of a bachelor’s talent. They have been comparable, each leading the way, and can be regarded as the three milestones in the history of Chinese calligraphy


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