Du Fu Poem: Temple of the Premier of Shu – 杜甫《蜀相》

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蜀相[1]

杜甫

丞相祠堂[2]何处寻?

锦官城[3]外柏森森。

映阶碧草自春色,

隔叶黄鹂空好音。

三顾频烦天下计[4]

两朝[5]开济老臣心。

出师未捷身先死[6]

长使英雄泪满襟。

注释:

[1] 蜀相:三国时期蜀国的丞相诸葛亮,字孔明,山东琅玡人,曾辅佐刘备建立蜀国,使三国鼎立局面得以形成。

[2] 丞相祠堂:《三国志·蜀书》中记载,诸葛亮去世后被葬在汉中定军山上,因山为坟,蜀后主赐谥爵为“忠武侯”,后来又为他立了祠堂,成为“武侯祠”,位于今成都城南。

[3] 锦官城:成都的别称。

[4] “三顾”句:《三国志·蜀书》曾记载,刘备三顾茅庐向诸葛亮询问兴复汉室的计谋,诸葛亮由此出山,这里就指这一典故。三顾,诸葛亮《出师表》中称刘备“三顾臣于草庐之中”。天下计,指的是诸葛亮《隆中对》中所说东连孙权、北抗曹操、西取刘璋的计划。

[5] 两朝:指诸葛亮辅佐刘备建立蜀国,又辅佐刘禅坚守蜀国。

[6] “出师”句:《三国志·蜀书》记载,诸葛亮在刘备去世后,曾出岐山攻魏,想要成就“北定中原,兴复汉室”的大业,但是六出岐山,大业未竟,反因为身患重病,在五丈原军中去世。

Temple of the Premier of Shu

Du Fu

The Premier’s Temple’s in the shade

Of cypress woven with brocade.

The steps are green with grass in spring;

In vain amid leaves orioles sing.

Consulted thrice on state affair,

He served two reigns beyond compare.

He died before he won success.

Could heroes’ tears not wet their dress?

The premier of Shu was Zhuge Liang (181—234) and the Town of Brocade is Chengdu.

《蜀相》是唐代诗人杜甫定居成都草堂后,翌年游览武侯祠时创作的一首咏史怀古诗。此诗借游览古迹,表达了诗人对蜀汉丞相诸葛亮雄才大略、辅佐两朝、忠心报国的称颂以及对他出师未捷而身死的惋惜之情。诗中既有尊蜀正统的观念,又有才困时艰的感慨,字里行间寄寓感物思人的情怀。这首七律章法曲折宛转,自然紧凑。前两联记行写景,洒洒脱脱;后两联议事论人,忽变沉郁。全篇由景到人,由寻找瞻仰到追述回顾,由感叹缅怀到泪流满襟,顿挫豪迈,几度层折。全诗所怀者大,所感者深,雄浑悲壮,沉郁顿挫,具有震撼人心的巨大力量。

The poem “The Minister of Shu” is a poem written by the Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu when he visited the Wuhou Temple the following year after settling in the Cao Tang Hall in Chengdu. The poem expresses the poet’s admiration for Zhuge Liang, the prime minister of the Shu Han Dynasty, for his great talent, his loyalty and service to his country, and his regret for his death before he was able to win the battle. The poem contains not only the concept of respecting Shu’s orthodoxy, but also the sentiment of hardship in time, and the sentiment of thinking of others. This seven-line poem has a twisting and turning style and is naturally compact. The first two lines are about the scenery, and the last two lines are about people, and they suddenly become somber. The whole poem goes from scenery to people, from looking for admiration to retrospection, from sighing and reminiscing to tearfulness, with several folds of frustration and grandeur. The poem is majestic and mournful, with a great power to shock people’s hearts.

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