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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy高邕 行书:杜牧《九日齐山登高》

高邕 行书:杜牧《九日齐山登高》

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高邕 行书:杜牧《九日齐山登高》


【释文】江涵秋影雁初飞,与客携壶上翠微。尘世难逢开口笑,菊花须插满头归。但将酩酊酬佳节,不用登临恨落晖。古往今来只如此,牛山何必独沾衣。

【款识】杜牧九日齐山登高,乙卯正月十九日,高邕。

【注释】恨落晖:一作叹落晖。独沾衣:一作泪沾衣。

【简析】

  这首诗是唐武宗会昌五年(845)杜牧任池州刺史时的作品。

  “江涵秋影雁初飞,与客携壶上翠微。”重阳佳节,诗人和朋友带着酒,登上池州城东南的齐山。江南的山,到了秋天仍然是一片缥青色,这就是所谓翠微。人们登山,仿佛是登在这一片可爱的颜色上。由高处下望江水,空中的一切景色,包括初飞来的大雁的身影,都映在碧波之中,更显得秋天水空的澄肃。诗人用“涵”来形容江水仿佛把秋景包容在自己的怀抱里,用“翠微”这样美好的词来代替秋山,都流露出对于眼前景物的愉悦感受。这种节日登临的愉悦,给诗人素来抑郁不舒的情怀,注入了一股兴奋剂。“尘世难逢开口笑,菊花须插满头归。”他面对着秋天的山光水色,脸上浮起了笑容,兴致勃勃地折下满把的菊花,觉得应该插个满头归去,才不辜负这一场登高。诗人意识到,尘世间象这样开口一笑,实在难得,在这种心境支配下,他象是劝客,又象是劝自己:“但将酩酊酬佳节,不用登临恨落晖”──斟起酒来喝吧,只管用酩酊大醉来酬答这良辰佳节,无须在节日登临时为夕阳西下、为人生迟暮而感慨、怨恨。这中间四句给人一种感觉:诗人似乎想用偶然的开心一笑,用节日的醉酒,来掩盖和消释长期积在内心中的郁闷,但郁闷仍然存在着,尘世终归是难得一笑,落晖毕竟就在眼前。于是,诗人进一步安慰自己:“古往今来只如此,牛山何必独沾衣?”春秋时,齐景公游于牛山,北望国都临淄流泪说:“若何滂滂去此而死乎!”诗人由眼前所登池州的齐山,联想到齐景公的牛山坠泪,认为象“登临恨落晖”所感受到的那种人生无常,是古往今来尽皆如此的。既然并非今世才有此恨,又何必象齐景公那样独自伤感流泪呢?

  有人认为这首诗是将“抑郁之思以旷达出之”,从诗中的确可以看出情怀的郁结,但诗人倒不一定是故意用旷达的话,来表现他的苦闷,而是在登高时交织着抑郁和欣喜两种情绪。诗人主观上未尝不想用节日登高的快慰来排遣抑郁。篇中“须插”、“但将”、“不用”以及“何必”等词语的运用,都可以清楚地让人感受到诗人情感上的挣扎。至于实际上并没有真正从抑郁中挣扎出来,那是另一回事。

  诗人的愁闷何以那样深、那样难以驱遣呢?除了因为杜牧自己怀有很高的抱负而在晚唐的政治环境中难以得到施展外,还与这次和他同游的人,也就是诗中所称的“客”有关。这位“客”不是别人,正是诗人张祜,他比杜牧年长,而且诗名早着。穆宗时令狐楚赏识他的诗才,曾上表推荐,但由于受到元稹的排抑,未能见用。这次张祜从江苏丹阳特地赶来拜望杜牧。杜牧对他的被遗弃是同情的,为之愤愤不平。因此诗中的抑郁,实际上包含了两个人怀才不遇、同病相怜之感。这才是诗人无论怎样力求旷达,而精神始终不佳的深刻原因。

  诗人的旷达,在语言情调上表现为爽利豪宕;诗人的抑郁,表现为“尘世难逢开口笑”、“不用登临恨落晖”、“牛山何必独沾衣”的凄恻低回,愁情拂去又来,愈排遣愈无能为力。这两方面的结合,使诗显得爽快健拔而又含思凄恻。

【Simple Translation】

  This poem was written by Du Mu when he was the governor of Chizhou in the fifth year of the reign of Emperor Wu Zong of the Tang Dynasty (845).

  ”Jiang Han’s autumn shadow geese first flew, with a guest carrying a pot up to Cui Wei.” On the Chrysanthemum Festival, the poet and his friend, armed with wine, climbed Mount Qi, southeast of the city of Chizhou. The mountains in Jiangnan are still a misty green color in autumn, which is called Cuiwei. When people climb the mountain, they seem to be climbing on this lovely color. Looking down at the river from a high place, all the scenery in the air, including the figures of the first flying geese, are reflected in the blue waves, which makes the water and air in autumn even more clear and solemn. The poet uses the word “Han” to describe the river as if it embraces the autumn scenery in its own embrace, and uses a beautiful word like “Cuiwei” to replace the autumn mountains, both of which reveal the delightful feeling of the scenery in front of us. The pleasure of being on a holiday has injected a stimulus into the poet’s depressed mood. “It is hard to open one’s mouth and smile in the earthly world; chrysanthemums must be put on the full head to return.” Faced with the autumn landscape, his face was filled with smiles, and he enthusiastically folded a handful of chrysanthemums, thinking that he should return with a full head of chrysanthemums in order to live up to this ascent. The poet realizes that it is rare to have such a smile in this world, and in this state of mind, he seems to be advising his guests and himself: “But let’s get drunk to reward the festival, no need to hate the sunset when we are on the festival. The middle four lines give people a feeling of The middle four lines give people a feeling that the poet seems to want to use the occasional happy smile and the festival drunkenness to cover up and dispel the depression that has accumulated in his heart for a long time, but the depression still exists, and it is hard to get a smile in the earthly world after all, and the sunset is just around the corner. So, the poet further consoled himself: “This is the only thing that has happened in the past and the present, why should Niu Shan be alone with his clothes?” In the Spring and Autumn period, the Duke of Qi Jing traveled to Niu Mountain and looked north at the capital Linzi and wept, saying, “What if Pang Pang went here and died!” The poet, from the Qi Mountain in Chi Zhou, which he was climbing in front of him, thought of the Duke of Qi’s tears on the Niu Mountain, and thought that the kind of impermanence of life felt by “hating the falling sunlight when climbing” was the same throughout the ages. Since this hatred does not exist only in this world, why do we need to be alone and weep like Qi Jinggong?

  Some people think that this poem is a poem of “depressed thoughts with open-mindedness”, and it is true that the poem shows the depression of feelings, but the poet did not necessarily use open-minded words to express his bitterness, but intertwined both depression and joy when ascending to the height. The poet subjectively did not want to use the pleasure of the festival to dispel his depression. The use of words such as “must be inserted”, “but will”, “no need” and “why must” in the poem can clearly let one feel the poet’s emotional The poet’s emotional struggle can be clearly felt. As for the fact that the poet did not really struggle from depression, that is a different matter.

  Why is the poet’s sorrow so deep and so difficult to dispel? Apart from the fact that Du Mu himself had high ambitions that were difficult to realize in the political environment of the late Tang Dynasty, it also had to do with the person who traveled with him, the “guest” referred to in the poem. This “guest” was none other than the poet Zhang Hu, who was older than Du Mu and whose poetry was known earlier. During Mu Zong’s reign, Linghu Chu appreciated his poetic talent and recommended him, but he was rejected by Yuan Zhen and could not be used. This time, Zhang Hu came from Danyang, Jiangsu Province to visit Du Mu. Du Mu was sympathetic to his abandonment and was indignant about it. Therefore, the depression in the poem actually contains the feeling that both of them are unsuccessful and share the same illness. This is the profound reason why the poet, no matter how hard he tries to be open-minded, remains in poor spirits.

  The poet’s open-mindedness is expressed in his language, which is brisk and bold; the poet’s depression is expressed in the poems “It is difficult to meet the world with a smile”, “I don’t need to ascend to hate the sunset” and “Why do I have to stain my clothes alone on the Ox Mountain”. The poet’s depression is manifested in the poems “It is difficult to open one’s mouth and smile in this world”, “I don’t need to climb the mountain to hate the falling sunlight” and “Why do I have to stain my clothes alone on the Ox Mountain”. The combination of these two aspects makes the poem seem quick and robust, but also poignant with thoughts.

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