Du Fu Poems: On the Height – 杜甫《登高》

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登高

风急天高猿啸哀[1],

渚[2]清沙白鸟飞回。

无边落木萧萧[3]下,

不尽长江滚滚来。

万里悲秋常作客,

百年多病独登台。

艰难苦恨繁[4]霜鬓[5],

潦倒新停浊酒杯。

《登高》是杜甫于公元767年秋天在夔州时所写的杰作,被誉为古今七言律诗之冠。诗的前半写景,后半抒情。第一联刻画眼前具体景物,形声色态,一一得到表现,天风沙渚,自然成对。不但上下两句对,而且还有句中自对,如上句“天”对“风”、“高”对“急”,下句“沙”对“渚”、“白”对“清”,读来富有节奏感。第二联表现了夔州秋天的典型特征。诗人仰望茫无边际、萧萧而下的木叶,俯视奔流不息、滚滚而来的江水,抒发了韶光易逝、壮志难酬的感慨,把眼前景和心中情紧密地联系起来了。第三联写诗人漂泊无定的生涯,沦落他乡、年老多病的处境,产生了无限悲愁的情绪。这种情绪从空间(万里悲秋)和时间(百年多病)两方面来表达,诗意显得更加深沉。最后一联作结,诗人备尝艰难潦倒之苦,白发日多,加上因病断酒,悲愁就更难排遣。这种悲愁就像江水和落叶一样,无穷无尽,无边无际,仿佛充塞宇宙,要使万物同声一哭了。古人认为这诗不止“全篇可法”,而且“用句用字”“皆古今人必不敢道,决不能道者”,所以是当之无愧的“旷代之作”。

注释:

[1]哀:忧愁。

[2]渚(zhǔ):水中的小片陆地。

[3]萧萧:类似风吹动树叶的声音。

[4]繁:增多。

[5]霜鬓:白发。

On the Height

The wind so swift, the sky so wide, apes wail and cry;

Water so clear and beach so white, birds wheel and fly.

The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower;

The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour.

A thousand miles from home, I’m grieved at autumn’s plight;

Ill now and then for years, alone I’m on this height.

Living in times so hard, at frosted hair I pine;

Cast down by poverty, I have to give up wine.

 

《登高》是唐代诗人杜甫的诗作。此诗作于大历二年(767)作者在夔州之时。前四句写景,述登高见闻,紧扣秋天的季节特色,描绘了江边空旷寂寥的景致。首联为局部近景,颔联为整体远景。后四句抒情,写登高所感,围绕作者自己的身世遭遇,抒发了穷困潦倒、年老多病、流寓他乡的悲哀之情。颈联自伤身世,将前四句写景所蕴含的比兴、象征、暗示之意揭出;尾联再作申述,以衰愁病苦的自我形象收束。全诗语言精练,通篇对偶,一二句尚有句中对,充分显示了杜甫晚年对诗歌语言声律的把握运用已达圆通之境。

“On the Height” is a poem by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem was written in the second year of the Dali period (767) when the author was in Kui Prefecture. The first four lines of the poem describe the scenery of the ascent, closely following the characteristics of the autumn season and depicting the empty and lonely scenery by the river. The first couplet is a partial near scene, while the second couplet is an overall distant scene. The last four lines express the emotions of the author and his own life, expressing the sadness of being poor, old and sick, and living in another country. The neck line is a self-inflicted wound, revealing the simile, symbolism and allusion implied in the first four lines; the last line is another exposition, concluding with a self-image of sorrow and illness. The poem’s language is refined, with couplets throughout and a couple of lines within a line, fully demonstrating that Du Fu’s grasp of poetic language and rhythm had reached a state of perfection in his later years.

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