Du Fu Poems: The Temple of Emperor Yu – 杜甫《禹庙》

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禹庙

禹庙空山里,

秋风落日斜[1]。

荒庭垂桔柚,

古屋画龙蛇。

云气嘘青壁[2],

江[3]声走白沙。

早知乘四载,

疏凿控三巴[4]。

公元765年,杜甫出蜀东下,途经忠州(今四川忠县),特地前去观览大禹古庙。荒凉空山之中,瑟瑟秋风正起,晚霞余晖,涂染这空旷寂静的山谷,更显古庙深幽阒寂,肃然独峙。庭中桔柚硕果垂枝,壁上古画龙蛇飞舞。这里暗含典故,据《尚书·禹贡》载,禹治洪水后,人民得以安居生产,远居东南的“岛夷”之民也“厥包桔柚”,把丰收的桔柚包裹好进贡给禹。又有传说,禹“驱龙蛇而放菹”,使龙蛇也有所归宿,不再兴风作浪。青山千仞,云吞雾吐;白浪淘沙,东奔三峡。禹乘四种载具治水,凿通三峡的故事人所共知,而眼前的景象,引人追忆千年以前的上古洪荒,大禹不畏艰险凿石开山时的磅礴气势。诗人在山河破碎,风雨飘摇的时候歌颂大禹敢于征服自然的精神,意在希望君王能像大禹那样力挽狂澜,救民于水火,重振山河。诗人一片苦心,可昭日月。

注释:

[1]落日斜:落日西斜。

[2]青壁:空旷的墙壁。

[3]江:大禹庙所在山崖下的长江。

[4]三巴:指蜀地的巴东郡、巴郡、巴西郡一带。传说是大禹治水后浮现的陆地。

The Temple of Emperor Yu

In mountains void the temple shines;

In autumn breeze the sun declines.

In dreary yard fruits hang and fall,

Dragons and snakes dance on the wall.

Through mossy cliffs float mist and cloud,

The foaming river’s rolling loud.

Yu went high and low, far and nigh,

To conquer the flood under the sky.

 

《禹庙》是唐代诗人杜甫创作的咏史怀古诗。此诗首联点明游览的地点及时节,引出大禹治水的典故;颔联由远及近地描写大禹庙内部的景色;颈联写大禹庙周围的环境和氛围,庙内云气腾蒸,山下江声震耳,一派雄浑景象,暗喻大禹治水的功劳;尾联因大禹庙而缅怀大禹治水的丰功伟绩。全诗语言凝练,意境深邃,情感波澜起伏,笔触沉郁有力,写作章法严谨,整体气象宏丽,通过远望近观的视角转换,采用虚实结合、拟人传神等手法,收到了情景交融、韵味悠长的艺术效果,是咏史怀古的佳作。

“The Temple of Emperor Yu” is a poem written by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The first couplet of the poem specifies the place and time of year of the visit and introduces the allusion to Dayu’s water control; the jaw couplet describes the interior of Dayu’s temple from afar to near; the neck couplet describes the surroundings and atmosphere of Dayu’s temple, with clouds steaming inside the temple and the sound of the river below, a majestic scene that alludes to the merits of Dayu’s water control; the last couplet remembers Dayu’s great achievements in water control because of his temple. The poem’s language is concise, its mood profound, its emotions undulating, its strokes pensive and powerful, its writing style rigorous, and its overall meteorological grandeur, and the combination of real and imaginary, anthropomorphic and evocative techniques through the shift in perspective between distant and near views, which has the artistic effect of blending scenes and long rhymes.

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