Du Fu Poems: For the Tenant of My Thatched Hall – 杜甫《又呈吴郎》

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又呈吴郎

堂前扑枣[1]任西邻,

无食无儿一妇人。

不为[2]困穷宁有此?

只缘[3]恐惧转须亲[4]。

即防远客虽多事,

便插疏篱[5]却甚真。

已诉征求贫到骨,

正思戎马泪盈巾。

公元767年,杜甫住在瀼西的草堂里。草堂前有几棵枣树,西邻的一个寡妇常来打枣,杜甫从不干涉。后来,杜甫把草堂让给一位姓吴的亲戚,他自己搬到离草堂十几里路远的东屯去。不料这姓吴的一来就在草堂插上篱笆,禁止打枣。寡妇向杜甫诉苦,杜甫便写此诗去劝告吴郎。吴郎的年辈要比杜甫小,而诗人有意地用了“呈”这个不大相称的敬词,这是让吴郎易于接受。全诗措词十分委婉含蓄,因为诗人希望吴郎接收劝告。说明诗人十分同情体谅穷苦人的处境。在这种委婉曲折中,诗人联想到国家大局,以至流下热泪。这首诗作表达了杜甫对穷困人民的深切同情。

注释:

[1]扑枣:把枣子打落下来。

[2]不为:如果不是,若非。

[3]只缘:正因为。

[4]转须亲:反而更应该亲近她。

[5]插疏篱:稀稀疏疏地修建了一些篱笆。

For the Tenant of My Thatched Hall

Let your west neighbor pick up dates before the hall!

A sonless woman now in want of food and all.

Could she pick dates if she were not poor to excess?

You should be kind to her to make her fear you less.

She might be over cautious to be kept away.

Why should you put up a fence in your neighbor’s way?

Stricken to the bones, so pitiable she appears.

Thinking of the war flames, how can I not shed tears!

 

《又呈吴郎》是唐代大诗人杜甫的作品。此诗通过了劝吴郎让寡妇打枣的描述,表现了作者对贫苦百姓的深切同情和关爱。全诗如话家常,语气恳切,朴实动人,诗人用自己的实际行动来启发对方,运用散文中常用的虚字来作转接,在委婉曲折的夹叙夹议中来展现诗人的心理和品质,使作品既有律诗的形式美、音乐美,又有散文的灵活性,抑扬顿挫,耐人寻味,别具一种活泼、疏散之美。

“For the Tenant of My Thatched Hall” is a work by Du Fu, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty. This poem shows the author’s deep sympathy and care for the poor people through the description of persuading Wu Lang to let the widow beat dates. The poet uses his own practical actions to inspire the other side, uses the usual dummy words in prose to make transitions, and shows the poet’s psychology and qualities in a euphemistic and twisted interlude of narrative and discussion, so that the work has both the formal and musical beauty of a poem and the flexibility of prose.

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