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HomeTang Poetry and Chinese Calligraphy徐邦达 行书:李商隐《凉思》

徐邦达 行书:李商隐《凉思》

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徐邦达 行书:李商隐《凉思》


【释文】客去波平槛,蝉休露满枝。永怀当此节,倚立自移时。北斗兼春远,南陵寓使迟。天涯占梦数,疑误有新知。

【款识】义山凉思诗,一九八八年三月书于五羊城下,徐邦达。

【注释】南陵:今安徽省南陵县。

【简析】

  这是写诗人初秋夜晚的一段愁思。

  首联写愁思产生的环境。访客已经离去,池水涨平了栏槛,知了停止噪鸣,清露挂满树枝,好一幅水亭秋夜的清凉图景!但是,诗句的胜处不光在于写景真切,它还细致地传达出诗人心理感受的微妙变化。如“客去”与“波平槛”,本来是互不相关的两件事,为什么要连在一起叙述呢?细细推敲,大有道理。大凡人在热闹之中,是不会去注意夜晚池塘涨水这类细节的。只有当客人告退、孤身独坐时,才会突然发现:哟,怎么不知不觉间面前的水波已涨得这么高了!同样,鸣蝉与滴露也是生活里的常事,也只有在陡然清静下来心绪无聊时,才会觉察到现象的变化。所以,这联写景实际上反映了诗人由闹至静后的特殊心境,为引起愁思作了铺垫。

  第二联开始,诗人的笔触由“凉”转入“思”。永怀,即长想。此节,此刻。移时,历时、经时。诗人的身影久久倚立在水亭栏柱之间,他凝神长想,思潮起伏。读者虽还不知道他想的什么,但已经感染到那种愁思绵绵的悲凉情味。

  诗篇后半进入所思的内容。北斗星,因为它屹立天极,众星围绕转动,古人常用来比喻君主,这里指皇帝驻居的京城长安。兼春,即兼年,两年。南陵,今安徽繁昌县,唐时属宣州。寓,托。两句意思是:离开长安已有两个年头,滞留远方未归;而托去南陵传信的使者,又迟迟不带回期待的消息。处在这样进退两难的境地,无怪乎诗人要产生被弃置天涯、零丁无告的感觉,屡屡借梦境占卜吉凶,甚至猜疑所联系的对方有了新结识的朋友而不念旧交了。由于写作背景难以考定,诗中所叙情事不很了了。但我们知道李商隐一生不得志,在朝只做过短短两任小官,其余时间都漂泊异乡,寄人幕下。这首诗大约写在又一次飘零途中,缅怀长安而不得归,寻找新的出路又没有结果,素抱难展,托身无地,只有归结于悲愁抑郁的情思。“凉思”一题,语意双关:既指“思”由“凉”生,也意味着思绪悲凉。按照这样的理解,“凉”和“思”又是通篇融贯为一体的。

  此诗抒情采用直写胸臆的方式,不象作者一般诗作那样婉曲见意,但倾吐胸怀仍有宛转含蓄之处,并非一泻无余。语言风格疏郎清淡,不假雕饰,也有别于李商隐一贯的精工典丽的作风,正适合于表现那种凄冷萧瑟的情怀。大作家善于随物赋形,不受一种固定风格的拘限,于此可见一斑。

【Simple Translation】

  This is a poet’s sorrowful thought in the early autumn night.

  The first couplet describes the environment in which the sorrowful thoughts arise. The visitors have already left, the pond water has flattened the threshold, the robins have stopped chirping, and the dew is hanging on the branches of the trees, a cool autumn night in the water pavilion! However, the beauty of the poem is not only in the authenticity of the scene, but also in the subtle changes in the poet’s psychological feelings. For example, “the departure of the guest” and “the leveling of the threshold” are originally two unrelated events, but why do they have to be described together? On closer examination, it makes sense. Most people in the hustle and bustle, is not to pay attention to the night pond water such details. Only when the guests leave, sitting alone, will suddenly realize: Yo, how unknowingly the water in front of you has risen so high! Similarly, cicadas and dew drops are also common things in life, and it is only when one is suddenly bored that one will notice the change in the phenomenon. Therefore, this couplet actually reflects the poet’s special state of mind after the change from quietness to chaos, and paves the way for his sad thoughts.

  In the second couplet, the poet moves from “cool” to “thought”. The poet’s thoughts are about a long time. This section, this moment. The poet’s figure is leaning for a long time. The poet’s figure is standing between the railings of the water pavilion for a long time, and he is thinking long and hard, and his thoughts are rising and falling. Although the reader does not know what he is thinking about, he can already feel the sadness of his thoughts.

  In the second half of the poem, he enters the content of his thoughts. The Big Dipper star, because it stands at the end of the sky and the stars revolve around it, was often used by the ancients as a metaphor for the emperor. Kanchun, i.e., two years. Nanling, present-day Fanchang County, Anhui Province, was part of Xuanzhou during the Tang Dynasty. The two sentences mean: leaving Chang’an. The meaning of the two lines is: I have left Chang’an for two years, and I have not returned to the distant place; and the messenger who was entrusted to deliver the message to Nanling was late in bringing back the expected news. In such a dilemma, it is no wonder that the poet feels abandoned in the sky and has no one to talk to. He repeatedly uses dreams to divine good fortune and even suspects that the other party he has contacted has a new friend and does not remember his old friendship. Since the context of the poem is difficult to ascertain, it is not very clear what happened in the poem. However, we know that Li Shangyin was unpromising throughout his life, and he only served two short terms as a minor official in the imperial court, and spent the rest of his life wandering in a foreign land and sending people to the curtain. This poem was written about the time when he was on his way to his homeland again, remembering Chang’an but not being able to return, looking for a new way out without any result, and having no place to rest his body, so he could only return to his sad and depressed feelings. The title “Cool Thoughts” has a double meaning: it means that “thoughts” are born from “cool”, and it also means that the thoughts are sad. In this way, “cool” and “thought” are integrated throughout the poem.

  The poem is written in a straightforward way, unlike the author’s usual poems, but there are still subtleties in pouring out one’s heart, not all of them. The language style is sparse and light, not pretentious, and different from Li Shangyin’s usual refined and elegant style, which is suitable for the expression of the cold and sorrowful mood. The great writer is good at assigning shapes to things and is not constrained by a fixed style, which is evident here.

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