Du Fu Poems: The Stone Fortress- 杜甫《八阵图》

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八阵图[1]

功盖三分国,

名成八阵图。

江流石不转,

遗恨失吞吴。

《金圣叹选批杜诗》中说:“八阵图,垒石作八行,在鱼腹浦平沙上:一天,二地,三风,四云,五飞龙,六翔鸟,七虎翼,八蛇蟠,为八阵。”八阵图的遗址在夔州西南永安宫前的平沙上,聚细石成堆,高五尺,六十围,纵横棋布,排列为六十四堆。公元766年,杜甫初到夔州,看见了八阵图,就写了这首诗。第一句说,诸葛亮的大功是使蜀和吴、魏三分天下。第二句说,他的军事贡献体现在对抗吴魏的八阵图上。第三句说,即使长江大水淹没平沙,水退之后,八阵图的石堆依然如故,600年来岿然不动。第四句说,诸葛亮的八阵图本是用来联吴抗魏的,但是刘备却要“吞吴”,于是金圣叹说:“不谓关羽奋一朝之勇,‘失’之于先;先主(刘备)又逞一击之忿,‘失’之于后。不能亲吴则亦岂能拒魏哉!”所以统一大业中途夭折,成了千古遗恨。这首绝句融议论入诗,把怀古与述怀合为一体,使人有此恨绵绵,余意不尽之感。

注释:

[1]八阵图:用石头垒成天、地、风、云、龙、虎、马、蛇八阵,用于操练或作战。诸葛亮曾布过此阵。

The Stone Fortress

With his exploits history is crowned;

For his Stone Fortress he’s renowned.

The river flows but stones still stand,

Though he’d not taken back lost land.

 

《八阵图》是唐代大诗人杜甫的诗作。这是作者初到夔州时作的一首咏怀诸葛亮的诗,写于唐代宗大历元年(766)。此诗前二句赞颂诸葛亮的丰功伟绩,尤其称颂他在军事上的才能和建树;后二句对刘备吞吴失师,葬送了诸葛亮联吴抗曹统一中国的宏图大业,表示惋惜。末句照应开头,三句照应二句。在内容上,既是怀古,又是抒怀,情中有情,言外有意,在绝句中别树一格。

” The Stone Fortress” is a poem by Du Fu, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty. It was written in the first year of the Dali reign of the Tang Dynasty (766). The first two lines of the poem praise Zhuge Liang’s great achievements, especially his military talents and achievements; the second two lines express regret that Liu Bei lost his division when he swallowed Wu and buried Zhuge Liang’s ambitious goal of unifying China with Wu against Cao. The last sentence follows the beginning, and the third sentence follows the second. The last two lines are a reminder of the beginning of the poem, and the third line is a reminder of the second line. The content of the poem is not only nostalgic but also lyrical, and there are feelings within the feelings and meanings outside the words.

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